Articles and their descriptions

Dear Reader,

The primary intent of this website is to chronicle my findings regarding the worldwide flood, as well as my dealings with geologists. To that effect, here are some items:

– My peer-reviewed paper, “The Flooding of the Mediterranean Basin at the Younger-Dryas Boundary”. It will take some time to undo geology’s historic mess, but doing so has its ‘official start’ with this publication (as well as in my book). Among the consequences: two major branches of science, geology and anthropology, require fundamental reformations.

Figure6 blog

Letter to the editor of a National Academy of Sciences article in which I request the retraction of the PNAS article, “Sustained wood burial in the Bengal Fan over the last 19My.” Sadly, the National Academy of Sciences is staffed by geologists who cannot differentiate “presently exposed landscapes were never flooded” from “no worldwide flood, ever,” so they declined to publish my letter. Nonetheless, my letter is concise and completely correct, as the discovery of wood chips in oxbows now submerged beneath two miles of water is unambiguous evidence of the worldwide flood. We note, in particular, that the article’s authors, as well as its PNAS editor(s), did not include a map of the region from which the wood chips were discovered. One can only wonder, why? A discussion of the evidence that supports my letter is found here.

Ganges drill region

– Research article, “The explanation for impact craters discovered by MBARI off the coast of Central California,” shows that a recently discovered impact swarm on the ocean floor – now beneath two miles of water! – was created subaerially then submerged very soon thereafter by waters delivered by the object whose fragments created the swarm. The Monterey Bay Aquarium and Research Institute (MBARI) recently published, “Researchers discover mysterious holes in the seafloor off Central California,” available here. It is briefly summarized with this snippet: “The cause and persistence of the pockmarks still remains a mystery, but we find no evidence they were created from gas or fluid in the seafloor in the recent past. The micro-depressions are recently formed erosional features; they are not ‘incipient pockmarks.’ Overall, a lot more work needs to be done to understand how all these features were formed, and this work is in progress….” Close. The marks are not erosional, their cause is not a mystery, nor is there a need for much more work, for the explanation for the pockmarks is found in my paper. That is, the MBARI discovery represents important, corroborating evidence in support of the worldwide flood. As such, I have written to the MBARI researchers, its primary staff, as well as members of the Comet Research Group to inform them of the swarm’s cause, and to link them together so that they might take the lead in countering geology’s historic “no worldwide flood, ever” error.

MBARI impact locations off CA coast 27Dec2019

– Essay: Debunking Geology’s ‘No Flood, Ever’ Theory: Historical Analysis & Bathymetry Evidence on New Maps

Le deluge de Noe et les compagnons by Comerre 1911 public domain

– Research article, “Younger-Drays impacts: data and analysis,” deals with YD impact craters in North America, South America, and South Africa. It encapsulates the contents of a message sent to members of the Comet Research Group, as well as authors of a recent paper that analyses a South African YD impact.

– Research article, Insight into human migrations based on DNA heat maps, uses recently published maps of DNA similarities to show that the Mediterranean Basin, the last major region to be inundated by the worldwide flood, provided sufficient warning to its inhabitants to allow some to survive upward.

– Essay: Lemuria (Mu) I combine my findings with those of COL James Churchward and his paintings of Lemuria’s destruction in the worldwide flood.

Churchward The American and European Wave with ice chunks

– Essay: Galileo’s Telescope, Google Earth – As the telescope led to the end of geocentrism, so the new map data (e.g. Google Earth) nullify geology’s prevailing paradigm that has us all believing that there was never a worldwide flood.

EssayEyewitness Account of the Impact that Delivered the Worldwide Flood – Cave paintings found near Fouriesburg, South Africa, depict an eye-witness’s account of the object that delivered the flood. The painting captures the impacting object’s split as it neared impact – which led to the gap in the impact crescent.

Split with overlain paths

Research article,Simultaneous Impacts Configured Earth’s Landforms and Instilled Its Obliquity.” I employ new bathymetry maps to correct the means by which the continents obtained their current configuration. Continental drift is nearly as big an error as “no flood, ever.” I submitted the paper to the journal Geomorphology where it was sent out for review. Unfortunately, the reviewers felt it too radical for their journal. So we continue to believe that swirling currents in the center of the planet mysteriously reach up to move the continents. What garbage! The continents are not drifting; rather, their movements represent recovery from the simultaneous impact event (~65 million years ago!). This article has nothing to do with the worldwide flood, but it is enlightening to consider this event as an equally critical part of our planet’s history.

Figure1 5Nov2018

Public Lecture – I presented “Resolving the Problem of Atlantis” to the Explorers Club in NYC in 2016, and the talk is available here.

TV Interview – Working under the theory that any publicity is good publicity, I agreed to appear on George Noory’s show, Beyond Belief in October 2018. The interview is titled, “The Worldwide Flood,” and it is available here.

Radio Interviews – I appeared as the guest on radio programs. The interviews can be accessed at the following links:



Michael Jaye, PhD

The explanation for impact craters discovered by MBARI off the coast of Central California

On 9 Dec 2019, the Monterey Bay Aquarium and Research Institute, MBARI, published research findings in an article titled, “Researchers discover mysterious holes in the seafloor off Central California.” It is available here. The findings are summarized this way: “The pockmarks and micro-depressions in this area are both holes in the seafloor that occur in softer sediments, but they are morphologically distinct. The cause and persistence of the pockmarks still remains a mystery, but we find no evidence they were created from gas or fluid in the seafloor in the recent past. The micro-depressions are recently formed erosional features; they are not ‘incipient pockmarks.’ Overall, a lot more work needs to be done to understand how all these features were formed, and this work is in progress.”

Close. The marks are not erosional, their cause is not a mystery, nor is there a need for much more work, for the explanation for the pockmarks is found in my paper: the MBARI discovery represents important, corroborating evidence in support of my findings.

The MBARI map of the impact locations is shown, below. Note the NW-SE orientation of the impact field.

MBARI impact locations off CA coast 27Dec2019

Next is a Google Earth image depicting an impact swarm found in southern Argentina. We note that this field is similar to the swarm in the MBARI report: each is dense with minor impacts, and each field shows the same general orientation, NW-SE.

Argentina impact swarm 27Dec2019

MBARI also shows computer-generated images of some of the craters:

MBARI depression computer rendition 27Dec2019MBARI pockmarks depressions callouts 640x327 27Dec2019

For comparison, here is a close up from an Argentinian impact field:

Argentina impact similarity w MBARI craters

Note the circular pockmarks like those in the MBARI article.

Thus, we note the similarity not only in the field size and general direction, but also in the impacts’ variety, size, and number. The variety in crater shape and size is due to whether the crater-creating source object was ice or mineral.

The MBARI and the Argentinian impact craters were created by the disintegration of comet-like chunks that fell from the IO (impacting object) on its pre-impact flight path, approximated below. We note that the 1500-mile diameter IO was at a much higher altitude when over North America than it was when over Argentina, and this accounts for the western deviation from the white back-propagation line that approximates the IO’s central core path.


Soon after impact, the craters off the CA coast would become preserved by the worldwide flood waters that the IO delivered.

Thus, the MBARI impact craters corroborate that there was a worldwide flood. As such, it is an historic finding, and so I contacted the MBARI researchers with an email similar to this post. My hope is that they will give it the attention that it deserves. However, it is quite difficult for the modern geologist to accept that there was once a worldwide flood (most do not know the history of the belief), so I have little hope that my missive will have effect.

[Not stated in this essay nor in the MBARI article is the somewhat obvious fact: the two-mile depth of ocean water would not permit object penetration to create such craters (hence, MBARI’s mystery).]


National Academy of Sciences Letter to the Editor regarding “Sustained wood burial…”

I wrote and submitted a letter to the editors at the National Academy of Sciences concerning a paper they recently published in PNAS titled, “Sustained wood burial in the Bengal Fan over the last 19My.” The title of the letter was “Uncovering an historic error,” and, after submission, it was with the editors for about 24 hours…. With so little diligence to such an historic matter, the PNAS editor informed me that they declined to publish it. They gave neither comment nor reason.

Regardless of the rationale, their decision is further indication that “no flood, ever” is as deeply entrenched as it is incorrect…. Folks, this is the National Academy of Sciences failing to recognize Sedgwick’s error! Interestingly, the authors and editor(s) chose not to include in their article the map of the drill region, which I included in my letter. Why could that be?

So, for the historical record, here is the letter in its entirety. Its length could be no more than 500 words, which accounts for the brevity. But the message is completely correct and, therefore, appropriate:

Uncovering an historic error

The reported significance of “Sustained wood burial in the Bengal Fan over the last 19 My” is that “woody debris can survive thousands of kilometers of transport in rivers and in turbidites, to be deposited in the fan.” (1)

The immediate problem: the drill site from which the article’s cores were obtained is not in the Ganges deposit fan. That is, there is no known mechanism by which turbidites, let alone sufficient quantities of covering, preserving, sandy sediments, could be transported more than 1600 kilometers through the essentially stagnant water from the Ganges’ entry into the Bay of Bengal to the drill location.

The drill region from which the paper’s sandy cores were obtained is shown on the map, below, left. To its right is a map of a portion of the Ganges drainage (rotated 90o clockwise from north for comparison). Each displayed region measures roughly 30 km by 50 km and is viewed from a height of approximately 90 km. (2)

Ganges drill region

Had ancient wood chips been discovered in one of the subaerial oxbows, then it would be explained this way: the trees were carried downstream, deposited, covered, then preserved in the river’s sediments.

Accordingly, the essential question becomes: how do we come to find oxbows in 3700 m of water?

Pursuing it leads to an historic matter: Adam Sedgwick’s “no worldwide flood, ever” conclusion that affects all modern science. (3) It turns out that Sedgwick erred: from the evidence, he should have concluded that subaerial landscapes were never subjected to a common flood. Instead, he concluded that there was never a worldwide flood, thereby passing judgment on the morphology of vast, submerged landscapes that he could not observe. No one could observe them until the publication of detailed bathymetry maps about a decade ago.

Therefore, the discovery of preserved tree chips in abyssal Bay of Bengal oxbows is not evidence of some ad hoc sediment transmission process conjured to fit observations to the prevailing, incorrect “no worldwide flood, ever” paradigm. Rather, the discovery of preserved wood chips obtained from oxbows submerged beneath 3700 m of water represents unambiguous evidence of the worldwide flood.

Thus, the Lee et. al. paper must be retracted. Its authors should be counseled to consider re-submitting with the purpose of correcting Sedgwick’s historic error.



  1. H. Lee, V. Galy, X. Feng, C. Ponton, A. Galy, C. France-Lanord, S.J. Feakins, Sustained wood burial in the Bengal Fan over the last 19My. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116, 22518-22525 (2019).
  2. Maps: left, centered vicinity 7.91°N, 85.854°E; right, vicinity 26.732°N, 82.252°E. Google Earth,
  3. Sedgwick, A. Address to the Geological Society of London, on retiring from the President’s Chair, February 18, 1831.

Younger Dryas impacts: data and analysis

Today I wrote the following in an email to members of the Comet Research Group, as well as to authors associated with the recent South Africa YD impact paper.  The body of the email read: “Please see the attached .pdf that deals with YD impact craters in North America, South America, and South Africa. The data and its analysis play a part in identifying and resolving an historic error.” The following was attached to the email in a .pdf:

YD impact craters

To account for impact craters found in North America, one hypothesis holds that they were created at the YD boundary by ice chunks projected from a comet-on-ice sheet impact somewhere in the northern Midwest (US). Among the problems with this hypothesis: there is no primary comet remnant crater in North America; a North American impact could not account for YD impact craters and associated effects in South America (Pino, et al) and South Africa (Thackeray, et al) – ice chunk drafting notwithstanding (there’s a paper out there claiming that ice chunks ‘drafted’ from somewhere in the Midwest US to make their way to the Carolinas).

A more recent hypothesis holds that an impact in Greenland (Kjaer, Kurbatov, etc.) is the primary YD impact site. There are irreconcilable problems with this hypothesis, too: it is too far away from North America to account for cratering there; Greenlandic ice projections could not account for the primarily NW-SE axes in the Carolina bays; a Greenlandic impact could not account for YD impact craters in South America and South Africa; etc.

Instead, the primary impact site is in the Southern Ocean, southwest of South Africa. It is identified in my recent paper, “The Flooding of the Mediterranean Basin at the Younger-Dryas Boundary,” available here.

What follows are data and its analysis that account for the YD ice impact craters found in North America, South America, and South Africa. The term ‘IO’ is my abbreviation for the ‘Impacting Object’ that created all reported YD effects.


Google Earth screen capture1: A close view of an impact crater in South Africa. Its grid location is available in the screen shot. Note the runoff channels as well as its SW-NE orientation.


Google Earth screen capture2: The impact site from 1 but viewed from 12+ miles, as well as two lines. The shorter red line is drawn through the impact crater to convey the ice chunk’s direction at impact. The yellow line is parallel to the red line and of much greater extent for use in an upcoming comparison. Each line is oriented SW-NE.


Google Earth screen captures3 & 4: The lines from screen capture2, but from much higher eye altitudes, 166+ miles on slide three, and 1733 miles on slide four.


Google Earth screen capture5 shows the yellow line from the previous slides, as well as a line drawn through the trough at the center of the YD impact crescent in the Southern Ocean. The solid, dense core of the impacting object (IO) carved this trough on impact, so the white line depicts the IO’s pre-impact flight direction. Note that the lines are essentially parallel; the South African impact direction is slightly more northerly, understandable since it is found north of the IO site (indicates a northward fragmentation vector).


Google Earth screen capture6 is the same view as screen capture5 but from a much higher eye altitude. Note that the white IO impact direction line extends over southern Argentina and Peru (i.e. Pilauco site). Note, too, that the white line’s orientation over South America is essentially NW-SE.


Google Earth screen capture7 shows several impact craters in southern Argentina, all with a NW-SE orientation. Note the runoff channels that are very similar to those at the South Africa site.


Google Earth screen capture8 shows several impact craters from North Carolina, all oriented NW-SE.


Google Earth screen capture9 shows the IO back-propagated path as in the previous slide.



The IO’s core trough indicates its immediately pre-impact direction, and though it did not cross directly over the South Pole, it came relatively close. Thus, the western hemisphere impact directions are mostly NW-SE, and the South African impact direction is SW-NE.

The IO’s altitude when over North America, combined with variability in fragment chunk location and initial velocity from the IO sphere, would account for reported variabilities in North American crater axis orientations; that is, the IO’s overflight path accounts for ice fragment crater orientations in North America. A list of representative craters associated with the flight path is found in my paper’s Appendix (South Africa paper was published after my paper).

It is likely that the directionally straight back-propagation path is not exact at greater distances from the impact site (i.e. North America) due to gravitational effects.

Runoff channels at the craters were carved by the fragments’ ice melt.  The IO impact was so massive that its runoff created the worldwide flood, as described in my paper.

The IO’s pre-impact ice fragments would be considered comets had they broken off much, much earlier in its Earth approach.

Geology’s “no worldwide flood, ever” hypothesis is indisputably wrong – it is the most profound error in the history of science. The YD event and the worldwide flood are synonymous.

We are in a new geologic era, The Post-Diluvian.


Insight into human migrations based on DNA heat maps

Maps depicting human migrations, like the one from, below, are based on the prevailing “no flood, ever” paradigm.


Data for such maps come from research like “A DNA Search for the First Americans Links Amazon Groups to Indigenous Australians,” reported in a 2015 Smithsonian article. There we find the next map displaying, by color, DNA similarities among indigenous humans (dark = closely linked, clear = not closely linked). Note that native Australians are closely linked to native South Americans. DNA heat map

In the Smithsonian article, we read:

“More than 15,000 years ago, humans began crossing a land bridge called Beringia that connected their native home in Eurasia to modern-day Alaska. Who knows what the journey entailed or what motivated them to leave, but once they arrived, they spread southward across the Americas.

The prevailing theory is that the first Americans arrived in a single wave, and all Native American populations today descend from this one group of adventurous founders. But now there’s a kink in that theory. The latest genetic analyses back up skeletal studies suggesting that some groups in the Amazon share a common ancestor with indigenous Australians and New Guineans. The find hints at the possibility that not one but two groups migrated across these continents to give rise to the first Americans.”

Thus, according to the article, and as depicted in the migration map, we are supposed to believe that, during the last ice age, native Australians made their way northward! more than 10,000 km through Asia, crossed an hypothesized land bridge through either the Bering Strait or the Aleutian Atoll, then made their way more than another 10,000 km to South America – all the while doing this without leaving their DNA signature!? What bunk.

A correct explanation for the native Australians-South American DNA similarities has nothing to do with migrations; instead it has to do with surviving the worldwide flood, described in my recent publication, “The Flooding of the Mediterranean Basin at the Younger-Dryas Boundary.” That is, pre-flood humans from the same “clan” spanned the tropical to near-tropical expanse from Australia to SA, and flood survivors from the eastern and western extents of the region bear the family’s DNA signature. Related materials regarding Lemuria (and COL James Churchward’s work) can be found here.

Other maps depicting DNA similarities are accessible from eupedia, and several are shown, below (Mediterranean, Early European Farmer, and Atlantic admixtures).

Human DNA heat map for various admixtures in Mediterranean region 4Nov2019

If the darkest regions correlate with the origination for the particular admixture, then these DNA maps corroborate that humans from the pre-flood Mediterranean Basin survived upward to presently subaerial landscapes surrounding what is now the Mediterranean Sea. They did not migrate out of Africa, as claimed in the transpacific map.

Of particular interest to me is the greatest concentration of the Atlantic admixture found near the Basque region of Spain in the bottom map. This indicates that humans from the pre-flood Atlantic basin survived the worldwide flooding event 12,800 years before present. Their relatives from Atlantis were not so fortunate.

The correct explanation for “Sustained wood burial in the Bengal Fan over the last 19 My”

A recent paper titled, “Sustained wood burial in the Bengal Fan over the last 19 My” states that “wood was not widely thought to survive export and burial in the oceans. This study shows that woody debris can survive thousands of kilometers of transport in rivers and in turbidites, to be deposited in the fan. Wood has been overlooked in quantification of organic carbon burial on continental margins.”

The notion that millions-year old wood could be found at various depths in the sediment column (meaning that the deposits occurred millions of years apart) – at the exact same location, thousands of miles from shore and more than two miles below present sea level! – should cause the authors, reviewers, and any scientist to question the matter. For, what is the probability that trees would float to the same spot, thousands of miles from the present coastline, sink more than two miles, and then become quickly covered in sediment so as to survive for millions of years? How did the sediments get there?! Where did the sediments originate?! What mechanism transported these tree-preserving sediments (in essentially stagnant water)?!

All rhetorical questions, for the idea that the trees became submerged thousands of miles from shore is as absurd as thinking that Monterey Canyon was created by subsurface flows. The paper’s statement is yet another example of geologists fitting observations to their erroneous “no flood, ever” paradigm. It is fantasy masquerading as science.

I cannot believe that otherwise intelligent humans could put forth such garbage and then have it reviewed and accepted for publication as fact. So, over the past few days, I’ve engaged geologists, including one of the authors of the study, about the matter. What follows is the essence of the conversations, a presentation and analysis of Google Earth images from the region. Here is what I wrote:

– The first image is a screenshot of the Ganges system draining into the Bay, as well as its bed that flowed down the continental shelf (top center of screenshot).

Figure 1 Bay of Bengal region

– The second slide is a closer view of the northern part of the Bay. Circled in white is a feature that is magnified on the next slide.

Figure 2 Bay of Bengal closer view with circled feature

– Slide three’s feature is a river’s oxbows, found at a depth of 8258 ft below present sea level. (BTW: we see these features amidst what appears to be a straight channel – it identifies the track taken by the ship that produced the sounding data.)

Figure 3 Oxbows in closer view of circled region from Fig 2

– Circled in white and yellow on slide four are the feature from slide three (white) and a similar one (yellow). The yellow region is magnified on slide five.

Figure 4 Wider view of Fig 3 feature and another to its south

– The features on slide five are a river’s oxbows at a depth of 9421 feet below sea level.

Figure 5 Oxbows in closer view of Fig 4 region

– Slide six shows a wider view of the southern portion of the Bay off Sri Lanka. Circled in red on this slide is another feature that is magnified on slide seven.

Figure 6 Feature submerged east of Sri Lanka

– On slide seven, at a depth of 12,232 ft below sea level, are more oxbows. Based on the depth (12,232 ft, close to the 3700 m depth mentioned in the Feakins et. al. PNAS paper), I strongly suspect that this the location from which the IODP obtained the cores used for the study.

Figure 7 Oxbows in closer view of circled region of Fig 6

– Note that the depth of the oxbows increases in each image. Thus, the Ganges system flowed southward toward a pre-flood basin, an approximation for which is circled on the map on slide eight, below. (This map of pre-flood earth is available in my paper, “The Flooding of the Mediterranean Basin at the Younger-Dryas Boundary,” that addresses the worldwide flood and geology’s historic “no flood, ever” error.)

Figure 8 Likely destination of Ganges preflood flows

– The entirety of this formerly subaerial river system explains why we find millions-year old tree remnants submerged in various sediment layers thousands of miles off the present shoreline. They were carried down by the Ganges, buried, then preserved by the river’s floods over the millions and millions of years before the region became submerged by the worldwide flood.


Debunking Geology’s ‘No Flood, Ever’ Theory: Historical Analysis & Bathymetry Evidence on New Maps

Le deluge de Noe et les compagnons by Comerre 1911 public domain

For almost 200 years geologists have accepted that the Earth has had all its water since nearly the beginning. This paradigm finds its origin in the early decades of the 1800s when European geologists began the process of determining whether or not the whole of the Earth suffered a deluge. The early geologists set about various landscapes seeking a common, flood-created deposit layer, but they could not find it. Instead, it became apparent that diluvial gravels belonged to multiple, distinct events. Therefore, because there was not a common event in the observational record, the early geologists concluded that there was never a worldwide flood. Thus, Earth’s waters have been here since the onset.

In his 1831 president’s address to the Geological Society of London, Adam Sedgwick renounced his belief in a worldwide flood. He stated, in part:

The vast masses of diluvial gravel … do not belong to one violent and transitory period. It was indeed a most unwarranted conclusion when we assumed the contemporaneity of all the superficial gravel on the earth…. Having been myself a believer [in a worldwide flood], and, to the best of my power, a propagator of what I now regard as a philosophic heresy, … I think it right … thus publicly to read my recantation.

It was a celebrated pronouncement, for Sedgwick was not only the Society’s president, but he was also a Cambridge University professor and a clergyman in the Church of England. Sedgwick’s recantation had lasting effect: to this day, all of science accepts that there was never a worldwide flood.

Interestingly, today’s lettered geologists staffing the science’s premier journals do not know the source of their fundamental “no flood, ever” tenet. They simply accept it as an article of their faith, and they immediately discount anyone thinking otherwise. I know this because I have dealt with them. Many of them. I have found that the very few aware of the tenet’s history are wholly uncritical of the conclusion relative to its supporting evidence.

Uncritical? Indeed: the early geologists’ “no flood, ever” conclusion is indisputably wrong. From the evidence, Sedgwick and his peers instead should have concluded: presently exposed landscapes were never submerged by a common flood. Whereas it is undeniably true that where we are now was never flooded by a common event, that is not equivalent to the claim that there was never a worldwide flood. Sedgwick and the other early geologists mistakenly passed judgment on vast, submerged landscapes that they could not observe; they assumed that all of Earth’s waters have been with us since the beginning. Their error precluded the possibility that now-submerged landscapes were once exposed and later inundated by some event.

Geology’s incorrect finding persisted for two reasons: (1) there was little contradictory evidence on presently exposed landscapes that would call into question the prevailing theory, and (2) we could not see into the bathymetry to observe submerged landscapes until only recently. Today, however, new maps allow us to observe the topography of ocean floors where we find former river systems.

For instance, the map on Figure 1 depicts bathymetry details to the west of the Monterey and Big Sur coasts of California. Note the many former rivers that made their way down and into the abyssal plain from upland areas. The combined drainages flowed to the southwest (lower left on Fig. 1); this terminus region is now submerged in more than four kilometers (2.5 miles) of water.

Monterey Canyon bathymetry 14Oct2019Figure 1. Bathymetry map off the California coast near Monterey and Big Sur.

It is important to note that we are applying the scientific method: new data on the maps caused us to review theory, and that led us to discover that geology’s “no flood, ever” paradigm is erroneous. The new data should evoke new thinking, which, in this case, would result in the restoration of the belief that the Earth suffered a devastating flood. That geologists have failed to review their fundamental belief in the presence of this new data is powerful testament to the constraining effect that “no flood, ever” holds over science, related disciplines, and rational thought.

The drainages in Fig. 1 reveal that the Earth had much less water than the present. As such, it is interesting to consider pre-flood Earth, a model for which is shown on Figure 2. It was created in ArcGIS by removing an estimated average depth of 3 km from the present sea level, thereby exposing the former river systems.

Figure6 blogFigure 2. With more than 3 km of water graphically removed, a model of land and sea distributions in pre-flood Earth shows previously exposed but now-submerged landscapes (tan), presently exposed landscapes (beige), and former oceans and seas (blue).

The pre-flood atmosphere would have covered the dark tan, formerly abyssal regions. As a consequence, this expanse would have experienced higher temperatures, primarily due to the absence of the incredible heat sink represented by the present oceans (higher atmospheric pressure would be another factor). We find evidence of pre-flood human activity nearly exclusively in tropical latitudes because, at more than 3 kilometers (two miles) above the former sea level, most of the yellow regions on Fig. 2 were too cold for human habitation. An immediate consequence: Fig. 2 should transform anthropology because furless humans evolved in tropical and near-tropical portions of the tan regions; we are not out of Africa.

To explain the drainages off the California coast, we must recognize that pre-flood California would have been more than 3+ km above the former sea level, and winds uplifted by the nearly vertical continental shelf condensed to create persistent rainfall that eroded and rounded the hills. The collective rainfall runoff drained down the nearly vertical slope where it acquired sufficient kinetic energy to carve Monterey Canyon (dominant feature in the upper part of Fig. 1). Runoff flows carved all the submerged drainages that can be identified throughout the planet’s coastal regions.

Not only does the new ocean bathymetry information overturn geology’s erroneous “no flood, ever” paradigm, it also affords a better perception of our past. In particular, the maps allow us to resolve the problem of Atlantis.

In Critias, Plato describes the Atlantis canal system:

It was rectangular, and for the most part straight and oblong…. It was excavated to the depth of a hundred feet, and its breadth was a stadium [equivalent to 185 meters] everywhere; it was carried round the whole of the plain, and was ten thousand stadia in length…. The depth and width and length of this ditch were incredible and gave the impression that such a work, in addition to so many other works, could hardly have been wrought by the hand of man. It received the streams which came down from the mountains, and winding round the plain, and touching the city at various points, was there left off into the sea…. From above, likewise, straight canals of a hundred feet in width were cut in the plain, and again let off into the ditch toward the sea; these canals were at intervals of a hundred stadia, …cutting transverse passages from one canal into another, and to the city.

Figure 3 is a NOAA map, centered at 24.4°W, 31.3°N, that shows the remnants of the Atlantis canal system. Let us compare it to Plato’s description. First, we note that the canals were straight and formed rectangular sections. The canal perimeter measures approximately 165 km east to west and 120 km north to south, so it was immense. In addition, the canals were sufficiently deep and wide to be discerned by modern instruments. The water source might have been the highland region to the west, which is the eastern extent of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We can see that the interlocking transverse canals were mostly at right angles and that the system might have drained to the northeast where we find a drainage channel. The distance between the canals varies, but the span between two major east-west canals, identified by the red arrow on Figure 3, measures 15 km, which equates to approximately 85 stadia (assuming that 5.666 stadia equal 1 km). Thus, Plato’s description of the distance between canals is close to what we observe.

Atlantis map with superimposed arrowFigure 3. NOAA map (public domain) of a portion of the Madeira Abyssal Plain with a superimposed arrow that is 15 km in length.

To determine the overall length of the canals, we can overlay straight line segments, as shown on Figure 4. We take those segments, lay them end to end, and convert their distance in kilometers to stadia. Doing so reveals: the length of the canal system is 1,775 km, which translates to 9,600 stadia, a number within 4% of Plato’s description.

Atlantis map with superimposed line segments for length calcFigure 4. Same map as Fig. 3, with overlain lines.

The blue star on Figure 5 (top and bottom) depicts the same map location. It is approximately 1,750 km west-southwest of the Strait of Gibraltar near the Canary Islands, 750 km south of the Azores, and 650 km nearly due west of Madeira. That is, the canals are found where prehistorians believe Atlantis existed.

Atlantis map with superimposed stars for location identificationFigure 5. To convey the location of the submerged canal system, the blue star in each NOAA map is in the identical location.

To carve such an extensive canal system implies that the Atlanteans were master stone masons. How they achieved such a feat is open to speculation. Yet, however they were created, conservation of mass should lead us to wonder: what did they do with the excavated materials? Could they have stacked them into pyramids?

In Timaeus, Plato describes Atlantis’ fate:

At a later time there were earthquakes and floods of extraordinary violence, and in a single dreadful day and night all your fighting men were swallowed up by the earth, and the island of Atlantis was similarly swallowed up by the sea and vanished.”

The Deluge towards its close Shaw 1813 public domain

The incredible earthquakes that Plato recounts would have been induced by the immense cosmic impact that delivered the flood, described below. Soon after the impact, the newly introduced floodwaters coursed their way around the planet and into low-lying regions such as the Madeira Abyssal Plain where Atlantis was buried (and its canals preserved) by the worldwide floodwaters.

Such a volume of water so as to add 3+ km to abyssal regions could not be stored at Earth’s poles – the atmosphere only extends so far. Thus, the source must be cosmic, and this brings us to the Younger-Dryas event wherein geologists recognize incredible ecosystem changes induced by a cosmic impact roughly 13,000 years before present. They have yet to identify the impact site, though they presume that some comet struck an ice sheet somewhere in North America and projected chunks several hundred to more than a thousand miles (and outside the atmosphere!) thereby creating the Carolina Bays and other craters found in North America. If the impact was predominantly comet ice (H2O) on North American ice sheet (H2O), then how could this hypothetical impact create any nanodiamonds (C), let alone a worldwide layer? Furthermore, such a forceful impact would have created a crater, no? And since the impact was only 13,000 years before present, then the crater could not have eroded away. Well, then, where is it?! (Answer: not in North America.)

Interestingly, but as yet unrecognized by geologists, thousands of similar impact craters are found along the entire length of South America (a list of crater locations is found in the appendix of my recently published paper). Example craters from southern Argentina are shown on Figure 6. Note that many of the craters have a NNW-SSE orientation. This indicates the overflight direction of the object from which they fragmented.

SA impact cratersFigure 6. Example ice impact craters from southern Argentina that were created by IO fragments as it neared impact. Because of the IO’s overflight direction, the ice impact craters are predominantly oriented NNW-SSE.

I knew to look for ice chunk-created impact craters in South America because I had located the flood-inducing impact site. It is found in the Southern Ocean south of Madagascar and north of Antarctica, and it is shown on Figure 7 (top) along with a superimposed diameter that measures approximately 2500 km. The image at the bottom of Figure 7 is a magnetic anomaly overlay shown from the same perspective as the image above it.

Impact site two images 14Oct2019Figure 7. Identical perspectives of the IO impact site in the Southern Ocean include: (top) bathymetry image with a superimposed diameter that measures 2500 km; and (bottom) a magnetic anomaly overlay. Note the parallel central scrapes, scoured by the IO’s solid core, that are perpendicular to the black diameter segment (top) and corroborated by a red band (bottom). To the northwest of the impact site is South Africa (upper left), and to its south (below) is Antarctica (each land mass is labeled, though somewhat difficult to discern).

The parallel central scrapes interior to the impact site delineate a trough carved by the solid impacting object (IO) nucleus; this nucleus also served as the gravitational attractor in the Oort Cloud where the IO formed. The trough indicates the direction of travel taken by the IO, and back-propagating its direction indicates to us that the object overflew North America and South America immediately prior to impact. Along the way its ice fragments rained down and created the many craters that we can find on the new maps.

Minerals and other debris delivered by the IO are found in deposit mounds interior to the crescent. In addition, IO debris was strewn up to 1500 km to the northeast through the crescent gap by impact velocities. We can identify the extent of the debris field in the magnetic anomaly overlay on Fig. 7 (bottom). The gap in the crescent was caused by IO fragmentation on its Earth approach.

Among its many names, the IO is known in various cultures as Phaeton, Set, and Satan, and it was one of a class of objects from which smaller comets are but fragments. It was loosely packed due to small gravitational accelerations induced by its dense nucleus as the object formed in the Oort Cloud, far from gravitational effects from our sun and other stars. The IO’s loosely packed nature likens its Earth-impact to a huge, porous ice-ball – with a rock in the middle – hitting a brick wall. We should note that the IO was not sufficiently massive to have its own atmosphere.

We know about comet composition from NASA’s Deep Impact mission, so we can estimate the volume of water delivered by the IO’s melted ice. From the IO’s radius, we can calculate the volume of water it contained, and, once we have that number, we divide it by the oceans’ surface area. This calculation yields average depth, which in this case comes out to be a bit more than three kilometers (two miles).

The addition of this nearly incomprehensible amount of water quickly and irreversibly changed the Earth ecosystem. The IO’s waters flooded the planet, and they did so from the abyss upward – they did not inundate presently exposed landscapes. In addition, the IO’s massive, high-velocity, ice-on-earth impact created the ubiquitous nano-diamond layer, and its ecological and geological influences are the known Younger-Dryas effects.

From an anthropological and historical context, we should recognize that the waters nearly killed our species. Human survivors were evicted from their natural environment by the flood, and having to adapt to a new Earth ecosystem changed their nature; they and their descendants struggle to survive. In the ensuing millennia, nomadic humans sought habitable regions as the Earth transformed from its pre-flood state to the present ecosystem for which humans remain ill-adapted. It is vital to note: our survival necessitates environmental abuses as we seek requisite food, shelter, and warmth.

Because Google Maps/Earth help us to identify and correct an historic, far-reaching scientific blunder, their new information is equivalent to Galileo’s telescope: each observational tool revealed data that led to overturning incorrect scientific paradigms (geocentrism, “no flood, ever”). We might consider that a universal and correct understanding of what happened to us and our planet 12,800 years ago could enhance international cooperation and efforts to ensure our continued survival.

Finally, two items: (1) geology needs to recognize the indisputable error that has adversely affected the most recent 200 years of science, particularly anthropology, as highlighted in my recent paper, “The Flooding of the Mediterranean Basin at the Younger-Dryas Boundary“; (2) validation of this finding will occur when remnants of pre-flood human activity are discovered in the deep abyss.

About (2): I have written to several wealthy explorers who own and operate deep-diving equipment. My missives have suggested several locations in the Atlantis region – not only the canals, but likely pyramid locations, too. It is only a matter of time until one of these entrepreneurs undertakes the mission. Any help in connecting me to an interested party would be greatly appreciated!