Articles and their descriptions

The primary intent of this website is to chronicle findings that expose geology’s indisputably wrong “no worldwide flood, ever” paradigm. ‘No Flood’ is two centuries old, and it adversely affects findings in three major branches of inquiry, geology, anthropology, and archaeology – all of which are teeming with pseudo-science. For the past two-hundred years, they have had it all wrong, which makes ‘no Flood’ the most profound error in the history of science.

The worldwide flood (aka the Flood) occurred recently (12,800 +/-200 years before present, the Younger-Dryas boundary). It was caused by a cosmic impact that delivered a nearly unimaginable amount of water that completely transformed our planet. It caused the extinction of myriad species, and, if it weren’t for our brains, it would have killed us, too. We are among the surviving species, but we find ourselves ill-adapted to the much cooler post-Flood ecosystem. To survive requires warmth, shelter, food, and waste removal, and these necessitate environmental abuses.

In addition to matters involving the Flood, there is one post devoted to the identifying the event and mechanisms that established the tectonic plates. That is, the notion that the tectonic plates move about by hypothesized subsurface mechanisms is as wrong as ‘no Flood, ever.’

To that effect, here are some items:

– My peer-reviewed paper, “The Flooding of the Mediterranean Basin at the Younger-Dryas Boundary”. It will take some time to undo geology’s historic mess, but doing so has its ‘official start’ with this publication. Already, it has been cited in two recent papers, Disaster Geoarchaeology and Natural Cataclysms in World Cultural Evolution: An Overview and Reemergence of Atlantis: The Shifting Paradigm and Creation of Neo-spatial Models

– Research articles regarding the 8-mile-long ‘canvas’ discovered in the Colombian rainforest: “Interpreting portions of the sprawling 8-mile-long ‘canvas’ discovered in the Amazon rainforest” and “Sprawling 8-mile-long ‘canvas’ of ice age beasts discovered hidden in Amazon rainforest,” report on the historic finding and interprets a portion of it. Bottom line: the worldwide flood inspired the survivors to commemorate the event and its consequences that include dramatic, worldwide climate change.

– Essay, “The Social Conquest of Earth” addresses fundamental questions such as Where are we from?, What are we?, and Where are we going?

– Essay, “An overlooked fact: we are ill-adapted to post-Flood Earth” concludes that, during the past 12,800 years, all social structures and economies have been directed toward ensuring human survival in the post-Flood ecosystem for which we are not properly adapted.

– Essay: Debunking Geology’s ‘No Flood, Ever’ Theory: Historical Analysis & Bathymetry Evidence on New Maps.

– Essay, “North America’s first permanent settlers: The Haida” uses published findings from the past six years to explain the Haida’s flood survival into the Pacific northwest.

– Essay: ‘No worldwide flood, ever’ is the most profound error in the history of science, was to appear at a certain website in Feb 2020, but interaction with the site’s editor led me to believe that the essay was not appropriate for the audience (too much science).

– Research article: “Younger-Drays impacts: data and analysis,” deals with YD impact craters in North America, South America, and South Africa. It encapsulates the contents of a message sent to members of the Comet Research Group, as well as authors of a recent paper that analyses a South African YD impact.

– Research article, “The explanation for impact craters discovered by MBARI off the coast of Central California,” shows that a recently discovered impact swarm on the ocean floor – now beneath two miles of water! – was created subaerially then submerged very soon thereafter by waters delivered by the object whose fragments created the swarm. The Monterey Bay Aquarium and Research Institute (MBARI) recently published, “Researchers discover mysterious holes in the seafloor off Central California,” available here. It is briefly summarized with this snippet: “The cause and persistence of the pockmarks still remains a mystery, but we find no evidence they were created from gas or fluid in the seafloor in the recent past. The micro-depressions are recently formed erosional features; they are not ‘incipient pockmarks.’ Overall, a lot more work needs to be done to understand how all these features were formed, and this work is in progress….” Close. The marks are not erosional, their cause is not a mystery, nor is there a need for much more work, for the explanation for the pockmarks is found in my paper. That is, the MBARI discovery represents important, corroborating evidence in support of the worldwide flood. As such, I have written to the MBARI researchers, its primary staff, as well as members of the Comet Research Group to inform them of the swarm’s cause, and to link them together so that they might take the lead in countering geology’s historic “no worldwide flood, ever” error.

– Research article: Ancient mammoth tusk recovered deep off the coast of Monterey Bay, discusses how a mammoth tusk could be discovered so far from shore and so far beneath the surface.

– Research article: Insight into human migrations based on DNA heat maps, uses recently published maps of DNA similarities to show that the Mediterranean Basin, the last major region to be inundated by the worldwide flood, provided sufficient warning to its inhabitants to allow some to survive upward.

– Essay: in Lemuria (Mu), I combine my findings with those of COL James Churchward and his paintings of Lemuria’s destruction in the worldwide flood.

– Letter to the editor of a National Academy of Sciences article in which I request the retraction of the PNAS article, “Sustained wood burial in the Bengal Fan over the last 19My.” Sadly, the National Academy of Sciences is staffed by geologists who cannot differentiate “presently exposed landscapes were never flooded” from “no worldwide flood, ever,” so they declined to publish my letter. Nonetheless, my letter is concise and completely correct, as the discovery of wood chips in oxbows now submerged beneath two miles of water is unambiguous evidence of the worldwide flood. We note, in particular, that the article’s authors, as well as its PNAS editor(s), did not include a map of the region from which the wood chips were discovered. One can only wonder, why? A discussion of the evidence that supports my letter is found here.

– Research article, “The Correct Explanation for sustained wood burial in the Bengal Fan over the last 19My” identifies the mechanism by which millions-year old wood became buried in sediments found at a depth of more than 3km.

– Essay, “The Sacred Ganges” uses ship-track soundings and findings from a recent PNAS paper to ascertain the extent of the pre-Flood Ganges. It helps us to understand why the river is considered sacred in Indian culture.

– Essay: Galileo’s Telescope, Google Earth – As the telescope led to the end of geocentrism, so the new map data (e.g. Google Earth) nullify geology’s prevailing paradigm that has us all believing that there was never a worldwide flood.

– EssayEyewitness Account of the Impact that Delivered the Worldwide Flood – Cave paintings found near Fouriesburg, South Africa, depict an eye-witness’s account of the object that delivered the flood. The painting captures the impacting object’s split as it neared impact – which led to the gap in the impact crescent.

– Essay, “A message not sent” contains an email message to a pseudo-scientist masquerading as a geographer and anthropologist.

– News item: Peer-reviewed paper, The Flooding of the Mediterranean Basin at the Younger-Dryas Boundary, published in April 2019, detailed here.

– My book is another source. I wrote and self-published it immediately after retiring. In it, I uncover and correct geology’s “no worldwide flood, ever” error. It is self-published because of the incredible prejudice brought against anyone thinking against the current paradigm. Among the consequences: two major branches of science, geology and anthropology, require fundamental reformations.

– Research article, “Simultaneous Impacts Configured Earth’s Landforms.” I employ new bathymetry maps to correct the means by which the continents obtained their current configuration. Continental drift is nearly as big an error as “no flood, ever.” I submitted the paper to the journal Geomorphology where it was sent out for review. Unfortunately, the reviewers felt it too radical for their journal. So we continue to believe that swirling currents in the center of the planet mysteriously reach up to move the continents. What garbage! The continents are not drifting; rather, their movements represent recovery from the simultaneous impact event (~65 million years ago!). This article has nothing to do with the worldwide flood, but it is enlightening to consider this event as an equally critical part of our planet’s history.

Public Lecture – I presented “Resolving the Problem of Atlantis” to the Explorers Club in NYC in 2016, and the talk is available here.

TV Interview – I appeared on George Noory’s show, Beyond Belief in October 2018. The interview is titled, “The Worldwide Flood,” and it is available here.

Radio Interviews – I appeared as the guest on radio programs:


Michael Jaye, PhD

Ancient mammoth tusk recovered deep off the coast of the Monterey Bay

Researchers with Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) found and extracted a mammoth tusk deep under the ocean. MBARI spotted the tusk 185 miles offshore and 10,000 feet deep on top of a seamount in 2019. Researchers have confirmed that the tusk—about one meter in length—is from a Columbian mammoth. They believe it could be the oldest well-preserved mammoth tusk recovered from North America. (link to article:…/monterey-bay-mammoth…/38326538)

The recovered mammoth tusk.

Not in the story, but important to the point of this post, is this information about deep ocean current speeds: “The magnitude of mean currents at depth driven by the global wind fields are on the order of 1 cm/sec.… Deep ocean currents are a function of the scale of the ocean basins and the magnitude of the wind forcing for the general circulation estimate. Once the stratification of the ocean has been set by that process, it determines the fastest growing horizontal scales for instabilities, which lead to the typical 100-200 km across ocean eddies that represent the weather component. Their speeds at depth are ~10 cm/sec.” – Prof Jeffery Paduan, former chair of NPS’ Oceanography Dept.

With that in mind, the Hjulstrom Curve is shown below. It describes water velocities, sediment (particle) sizes, and associated processes (transport, deposit, or erosion).

The point? A flow speed at depth (10,000 feet) would be 10 cm/s, maximum, meaning that the largest particle it could transport would measure about 2 mm. The tusk (~1 m = 1000 mm) represents a particle several orders of magnitude larger. Which then raises the question: what flow speed could transport the tusk 185 miles off shore? (Certainly, the mammoth didn’t swim out there.) Ans: a non-physical velocity would be required. Thus, the tusk was not transported by water to its off shore discovery location.

What happened: the mammoth lost its tusk on a (formerly subaerial) hilltop, it remained where the animal lost it, and then it became submerged under nearly two miles of Flood waters ~12,800 years ago. By luck, the MBARI researchers discovered it.

Despite this obvious explanation, one of the MBARI researchers claims that the tusk was transported to its discovery location via the mammoth corpse floating to the area. Predominant winds in the region are westerly, meaning that floating items would be blown ashore from the Pacific. (I lived in Pebble Beach, and can attest to having witnessed dead critter corpses – and their effects – that were frequently washed ashore.) Furthermore, the prevailing ocean current off the California coast is from the north. Thus, the researcher’s claim that the mammoth corpse somehow floated 180+ miles westward is but another example of pseudo-science; it is a weak attempt at fitting an observation to geology’s prevailing, erroneous ‘no Flood’ paradigm; it is anti-science, or fantasy.

Interpreting portions of the sprawling 8-mile-long ‘canvas’ discovered in the Amazon rainforest

In a previous post, I discussed the immense mural found in the Colombian Amazon, as well as an interaction that I had with the researchers who discovered it. In this post, I will interpret some of the mural contents from the perspective that there was a worldwide flood and that ensuing ecosystem changes made survival difficult for most animals, especially so for those that inhabited the former abyss.

I will concentrate on a portion of one of the images found in many articles reporting the discovery of the mural. A few comments before doing so: (1) Some of the articles mention that the Amazon was transforming from savannah to rain forest at the time the mural was created. This is correct; the introduction of the worldwide flood waters 12,800+/- years before present – essentially the same time as the mural’s creation – induced planet-wide climate changes and, therefore, local environmental changes. (2) Some articles claim that humans hunted some species to extinction. This is incorrect: all known extinctions at this time (e.g., the Younger-Dryas extinctions) were caused by changed environments.

In this analysis, I assume that time moves upward, that triangular waves represent water, and that rectangles represent landforms. Here is a portion of the mural found in many of the articles reporting the mural’s discovery.

In the blue oval, below, is a region of pre-Flood Earth with which the mural’s author(s) was(were) familiar. To the left is a large land mass (square with dots aligned in an X pattern). Perhaps the dots inside the square represent trees, or maybe the interior pattern is meant to convey the shape of mountains. This region was separated from other landforms by a ridge (vertical lines enclosing cross hatches). In the center of the oval were two major inhabited areas that included water, animals such as deer, and humans. I am not sure what the square waves (on the right) represent, though I suspect it could be an uninhabitable region because humans lived outside it (below and to its right).

The next oval captures the Flood’s effects. Note that the introduction of the water has covered the ridges, one of the square landforms that was between them, and most of the uninhabitable regions (square waves). Note that the animals are headed toward the central square! They were flushed out of their natural domains by the water, and they headed toward survival on dry land.

By the way, this explanation accounts for the diversity of creatures found in the Galapagos Islands – non-indigenous species survived upward and those that could adapt are now found mixed in with indigenous species.

In the next image, the arrows capture the time evolution of the two land masses that remain exposed after the Flood. If the dots inside the square represent trees, then it demonstrates the transformation of the region associated with the yellow arrows from steppe to rainforest.

In the uppermost oval we observe that a subset of the animals from the central oval is leaving the region. This might represent the extinction of some species. In addition, the outward migration reflects that some surviving species could not adapt to the region’s Flood-induced ecosystem changes. (Note that the four-legged creature with large ears found in all three ovals survives the ordeal. Could it be a flying squirrel or a bat?)

Hand prints in another image are found above the triangular wave. The meaning: I am human, I survived the Flood, and I wanted you to know.

Also, it appears that pre-Flood vegetation (plant leaves below the triangular wave and to the right of the hand) differs from the vegetation that survivors encountered afterward, depicted to the right of the hand prints. It would be fascinating to understand the human pre-Flood diet and how it differs from what we now consume….

Does the mural depict the IO’s appearance and debris trail on Earth approach?

In my paper (and book), I refer to the celestial object that delivered the Flood as the IO (impacting object). It was very large, about 1500 miles in diameter, and it was made up primarily of loosely compacted ice chunks. It was loosely packed due to very small gravitational accelerations (relative to Earth) induced by its solid core that attracted ice and other debris in the Oort Cloud where it formed. The IO would have been visible for many years prior to its impact, and, along its way, the Sun’s gravitational acceleration and other forces would cause the IO to shed some chunks that we now call comets. Its sun-illuminated approach would have made a lasting impression….

The IO’s path led to its capture by Earth’s gravity, as well as its ensuing impact in what is now the Southern Ocean. Back-propagating the IO’s core impact trough reveals that its pre-impact approach path overflew North America, Central America, and South America. Schematics of the approach path are shown, below. The first is a side view showing that the IO was highest over North America during approach, which would account for the continent-wide spread in its debris field (from off the Monterey, CA, coast to the Carolina Bays).

The second depicts the IO’s core overflight “shadow” just prior to impact.

On its approach, the IO would shed a long tail of debris that created impact craters in North America, South America, and South Africa. Examples of impact craters are shown below:

Carolina Bays (North America):

California coast (North America):

Colombia (South America):

Argentina (South America):

South Africa:

The orientation of this South African crater is essentially perpendicular to those from the Western Hemisphere because the IO nearly overflew Antarctica as it neared impact.

The fragile IO split in two just before impact, and this accounts for the gap in the impact crescent.

Identical perspectives of the IO impact site in the Southern Ocean include: (top) bathymetry image with a superimposed diameter that measure 1500 miles (2500 km); and (bottom) a magnetic anomaly overlay. Note the parallel central scrapes, scoured by the IO’s solid core, that are perpendicular to the blue diameter segment (top) and corroborated by a red band (bottom). To the northwest of the impact site is South Africa (upper left), and to its south (below) is Antarctica.

The IO split was also recorded in a South African cave painting, shown below and described here.

Why all this? Because the mural tells the story of what survivors encountered, and it is nearly certain that they witnessed the debris that rained down as the IO flew overhead. As such, I strongly suspect that somewhere in the mural is a depiction of the debris storm.

Two final comments:

  • It would be interesting to know if anyone was “in charge” of the mural, as well as how many years it captures.
  • The Flood completely changed the Earth, it created a horrific scenario for inhabitants, and survivors wanted to tell their story. The Amazon mural is another commemoration of the event.

The Sacred Ganges

Background: the Ganges river system

A recent paper reports the discovery of ancient wood chips in a sediment sample obtained from the Bay of Bengal. The authors conclude that “woody debris can survive thousands of kilometers of transport in rivers and in turbidites, to be deposited in the fan.” (Lee et al, 2019)

The notion that millions-year old wood could be found at various depths in the sediment column (meaning that the deposits occurred many years apart) – at the exact same location, more than a thousand miles from shore and more than two miles below present sea level – should cause the authors, reviewers, and any scientist to question the matter. For, what is the probability that trees would float to the exact same spot, thousands of miles from the present coastline, sink more than two miles, and then become quickly covered in sediment so as to survive for millions of years? How did the sediments get there? Where did the sediments originate? What mechanism transported the tree-preserving sediments through the Bay’s essentially stagnant water?

All rhetorical questions because the idea that the trees became submerged thousands of miles from shore is as absurd as thinking that Monterey Canyon was created by subsurface flows. The paper’s claim is yet another example of geologists fitting observations to their erroneous “no Flood, ever” paradigm. It is fantasy masquerading as science. The ridiculous findings prompted me to investigate the matter.

The drill region from which the paper’s cores were obtained is shown on the Google Earth image, below (left, centered vic 7.91°N, 85.854°E). There we observe a former river bed with its oxbows, found nearly 4000 m below sea level and 1600 km south of where the Ganges River presently drains into the Bay of Bengal. The map to its right is a portion of the post-Flood Ganges drainage (centered vic 26.732°N, 82.252°E and rotated 90o clockwise from north for comparison). Each displayed region measures roughly 30 km by 50 km and is viewed from a height of approximately 90 km. (Google Earth, 2020)

The ship that obtained the cores also mapped about 1500 km of the bay’s floor over an extensive track oriented mainly north-to-south. Its path can be observed on Google Earth; segments are identified by orange parallel lines in upcoming maps. Several portions of the ship track reveal oxbows of the pre-Flood Ganges.

The next map is a screenshot of the Ganges system draining into the Bay, as well as where it once flowed down the continental shelf (top center). The light blue/aqua coloring denotes the extent of the post-Flood sediment deposit in the bay (sediments do not transport through essentially stagnant water!). Gravity brought the pre-Flood Ganges waters from the higher plain, down the continental shelf, and then into the formerly subaerial abyss. We can identify its oxbows in parts of the yellow oval.

The region in the yellow oval is shown in following two maps, one with superimposed icons depicting the ship track sounding region with orange lines and yellow arrows that identify pre-Flood Ganges meanders. [Note: depth, and lat, lon locations for map centers are shown in the lower right of the Google Earth screen captures in each of the following maps.]

We follow the ship track southward in the next several images, and we discover more meanders and oxbows.

The ship track ends near the following map center where we observe the oxbows from which the paper’s cores were obtained (left side of first image, above).

Note that the depth of the oxbows decreases as we moved from north to south (-8323 ft, -9177 ft, -10527 ft, and -12364 ft). This should not surprise us – the pre-Flood Ganges waters followed the path of least resistance while accelerating due to gravity.

A bit further south, another ship track sounding with an east-west orientation reveals other river systems, identified again by the yellow arrows. Note that the riverbeds have essentially north-south orientations. (I believe that the Ganges is the system furthest east.)

Based on the riverbeds found in the ship track soundings in the above maps, we can piece together that the Ganges flowed from its mountain source region, through presently subaerial landscapes, down the shelf, and then through thousands of abyssal kilometers. The estimated pre-Flood Ganges River path is depicted by the red line on the next map.

The Ganges water would eventually drain into a pre-Flood sea. It is circled in black on the map, below, and the approximate path it followed is depicted in red. (The pre-flood Earth map comes from my paper, “The Flooding of the Mediterranean Basin at the Younger-Dryas Boundary,” that addresses the worldwide flood and geology’s historic “no flood, ever” error.)

We should note that this formerly subaerial river system explains why we find millions-year old tree remnants submerged in various sediment layers thousands of miles off the present shoreline: the trees were carried by the Ganges, then buried and preserved by the river’s sediments over the millions of years prior to the region becoming submerged by the worldwide flood.

Sacred Ganges

For tens of thousands of years, perhaps hundreds of thousands of years, the Ganges provided life-supporting water to humans occupying pre-Flood abyssal regions beneath what is now the Bay of Bengal. It is very likely that humans from the region shared a common culture. No doubt, some ventured to upland Ganges plains that would have necessitated some sort of clothing for warmth, perhaps the origin of khadi clothing. (Note: the adiabatic lapse rate would have the pre-Flood upland region about 35oC cooler than abyssal landscapes.)

The Flood’s survivors either made their way up the continental shelf, or they occupied the upland plains (that remain subaerial) when the Flood-delivering impact occurred. There, the Ganges would continue to provide requisite water. Portions of pre-Flood culture would have survived as well, which would account for the river’s reputation.

I suspect that Flood legends exist in Indian historical traditions. As such, this essay should be of interest to those responsible for maintaining them.


Google Earth: left, centered vicinity 7.91°N, 85.854°E; right, vicinity 26.732°N, 82.252°E. Google Earth,

M. Jaye, The Flooding of the Mediterranean basin at the Younger-Dryas boundary. Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry, 19(1), 71-83 (2019).

H. Lee, V. Galy, X. Feng, C. Ponton, A. Galy, C. France-Lanord, S.J. Feakins, Sustained wood burial in the Bengal Fan over the last 19My. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116, 22518-22525 (2019).

Sprawling 8-mile-long ‘canvas’ of ice age beasts discovered hidden in Amazon rainforest

Ice age canvas painted 12,600 years ago discovered hidden in Amazon rainforest

A report detailing the discovery of an 8-mile long mural appears in “Colonisation and early peopling of the Colombian Amazon during the Late Pleistocene and the Early Holocene: New evidence from La Serranía La Lindosa,” available here. According to the paper, indigenous people likely started painting the images at Serranía La Lindosa, on the northern edge of the Colombian Amazon, about 12,600 years before present.

The thousands of paintings include handprints, geometric designs, and a wide array of animals, from the small (deer, tapir, alligators, bats, monkeys, turtles, serpents, porcupines) to the large (camelids, horses, and three-toed hoofed mammals with trunks). Other figures depict humans, hunting scenes, and images of people interacting with plants, trees, and savannah creatures.

According to one of the paper’s authors, at the time the paintings were created, the Amazon was transforming from a patchwork landscape of savannas, thorny scrub, and forests into today’s leafy tropical rainforest. He added that many of South America’s large animals went extinct during this period, likely through a combination of human hunting and climate change.

“These rock paintings are spectacular evidence of how humans reconstructed the land, and how they hunted, farmed, and fished,” study co-researcher José Iriarte, an archaeologist at the University of Exeter, said in the statement. “It is likely art was a powerful part of culture and a way for people to connect socially.” 

A few comments on the report:

  • The transformation of the Amazon from savannah to rain forest is wholly due to the planet-wide climate change induced by the worldwide flood waters.
  • The extinctions were caused by the animals’ changed environments, not human hunting.

The images caused me to wonder: what would inspire ancients to create such an extensive memorialization? So, I contacted the authors of the paper with the following email:

“I came across your paper due to the appearance of findings in recent news reports (e.g. here). 

That you date the images to 12,600 years before present caught my attention. It is consistent with the ubiquitous nano-diamond layer formed by a cosmic impact at the Younger-Dryas boundary (approximately 12,800 years before present). I discuss the matter in my recent paper, The Flooding of the Mediterranean Basin at the Younger-Dryas Boundary, available here.

Your discovery prompts an important question: what would inspire the ancients to memorialize some event in an 8-mile long mural? The answer: survival after the Flood (discussed here).

I hope that you will keep this in mind as you go about deciphering the images. For instance, could the triangular waves represent the Flood’s waters? Could the block-shaped waves represent the ice that accompanied the newly introduced, planet-changing waters?


Michael Jaye, PhD”

The Social Conquest of Earth

Recently, I finished reading Edward O. Wilson’s The Social Conquest of Earth. In it, Wilson seeks answers to fundamental questions such as Where do we come from?, What are we?, and Where are we going? Although this work is touted for its interdisciplinary depth and associated findings, it nonetheless suffers from all the bad science related to geology’s “no worldwide flood, ever” blunder.  As such, I wrote to him the following email:

“Prof. Wilson,

Having read The Social Conquest of Earth, I think it appropriate to bring to your attention my recent paper, The Flooding of the Mediterranean Basin at the Younger-Dryas Boundary, available here. It identifies and corrects a major scientific error, geology’s prevailing ‘no flood, ever’ paradigm. Among the consequences is this overlooked fact: humans are ill-adapted to the post-flood ecosystem into which we survived (discussion here). Our maladaptation accounts for our environmental abuses.

Best wishes,

Michael Jaye, PhD”

I have yet to receive a reply.

Nonetheless, I address some of his book’s errors in the following essay.


Wilson writes about science and its role in searching for objective truth. He says, “Science…is the wellspring of all the knowledge we have of the real world that can be tested and fitted to preexisting knowledge [italics added]. It is the arsenal of technologies and inferential mathematics needed to distinguish the true from the false. It formulates the principles and formulas that tie all this knowledge together. Science belongs to everybody. Its constituent parts can be challenged by anybody in the world who has sufficient information to do so.”

Google Maps (satellite view) and Google Earth provide new and sufficient information to challenge and overturn a fundamental tenet in one of science’s constituent parts, geology. The new maps allow us to see the topography of the ocean floors, and they reveal submerged river systems throughout the planet, some of which extend hundreds of miles into abyssal plains, and most of which are beneath more than two miles of water. Anyone who has studied fluid dynamics would recognize that concentrated flows could not persist over such distances, particularly through abyssal plains where causational, gravitational gradients would be minimal. In fact, out in abyssal plains the greatest gravitational gradients would be perpendicular to channel beds, meaning that the channels beds could not exist. Yet, there they are. Furthermore, cores obtained from some of these submerged river beds contain terrestrial sands, gravels, and even ancient tree remnants (see here). If hypothesized, high-speed subsurface flows carved these features – as geologists claim, then why do the channel beds exist? Wouldn’t the flow speeds scour the beds? How would meanders form? And how could channel beds contain terrestrial materials? These are rhetorical, sarcastic questions, because geologists’ claim that the submerged structures were carved by turbidity flows is an example of fitting observations (channels) to “no Flood” theory. It is fantasy masquerading as science.

The drill region from which cores containing tree remnants were obtained and used for Sustained wood burial in the Bengal Fan over the last 19My is shown on the left. To its right is a map of a portion of the Ganges drainage (rotated 90o clockwise from north for comparison). Each displayed region measures roughly 30 km by 50 km and is viewed from a height of approximately 90 km.

The new maps caused me to investigate why geologists believe that there was never a worldwide flood, and what I found is indisputable: Adam Sedgwick erred when he concluded (in 1831) that there was never a worldwide flood. From the evidence before him, Sedgwick should have concluded that presently subaerial landscapes were never subjected to a common flood. Who would dispute the fact that presently exposed landscapes were never subjected to a common flood event? No one. So, let us be clear: that presently exposed landscapes were never flooded is wholly different from the claim that there was never a worldwide flood. Sedgwick erroneously passed judgment on submerged landscapes whose topography he could not observe – no one could see into the abyss until the maps were published about a decade ago. Sedgwick assumed that all of Earth’s waters have been here since its beginning thereby negating the existence of the very thing he sought! Had Sedgwick drawn the correct conclusion, had we waited nearly 200 years to decide the Flood matter when the maps would provide indisputable evidence of submerged river systems, then it would have been obvious: there was a worldwide flood. Unfortunately for geology and anthropology, all that has followed from Sedgwick’s error is likely wrong – practitioners in these disciplines have been fitting all subsequent observations to erroneous theory for nearly two centuries. Perhaps worse, Sedgwick’s “no Flood” finding has been accepted and celebrated for so long that anyone thinking otherwise is automatically castigated as an unscientific, bible-thumping rube.

Speaking of unscientific, please note that Wilson’s definition of ‘science’ includes the phrase “fitted to preexisting knowledge.” As mentioned above, this is absolutely wrong – we do not fit observations to preexisting knowledge; if observations contradict what is known, then it is the “knowledge” that must be challenged and then discarded. That someone of Wilson’s stature (he’s professor emeritus of Organismic & Evolutionary Biology at Harvard) would include “fitting” observations and conclusions to “preexisting knowledge” indicates that he recognizes the speculative nature of his work. As such, he defined science in such a manner so as to make his work scientific….

Where are we from?

When Wilson addresses “Where are we from?,” he writes: “The cradle of humanity was not the deep rainforests with their towering canopies and dark interiors. Nor was it the relatively featureless grasslands and deserts. Rather, humanity was born in the savanna forest, favored by its complex mosaic of different local habitats.”

His claim that we are out of Africa is a well-accepted tenet in anthropology, inferred from the notion that we evolved from extinct, related species whose remnants and artefacts have been found in Africa. This belief, repeated so often and accepted as true for so long, is an example of fitting observations (bones, tools, etc.) into what is supposedly known. Thus, we are out of Africa because that is where the artefacts were discovered and because we and our ancestors have been occupying presently exposed landscapes for hundreds of millions of years. This belief is a consequence of “no Flood,” and it is wrong.

Instead, we come from landscapes that are now under more than two miles of water – our homelands were submerged approximately 12,800 years ago during a planet-altering event that took place in a geological eyeblink. Rather than being “out of Africa,” we are instead from vast portions of the dark tan regions depicted on the map below, a model of pre-Flood Earth (found in my paper and book). The blue regions approximate pre-flood oceans and seas, and the beige regions represent presently exposed landscapes.

With more than two miles of water graphically removed, a model of land and sea distributions in pre-flood Earth shows previously exposed but now-submerged landscapes (tan), presently exposed landscapes (beige), and former oceans and seas (blue).

A few comments about the map: (1) The atmosphere would have occupied abyssal (tan) regions, which means that the beige regions were much cooler because they were more than two miles above them. The adiabatic lapse rate has temperatures decrease approximately 3.5oF per thousand feet, meaning that temperatures in the tan, abyssal pre-Flood regions were roughly 50oF warmer than the beige regions. (2) The Flood’s waters present an incredible heat sink, so pre-Flood Earth would have been much, much warmer than the present. (3) The thick layer of atmosphere above non-tropical tan regions would have attenuated the sun’s higher wavelengths; tan and beige regions at equatorial to tropical latitudes would have been subjected to much stronger UV light than non-tropical regions. (4) The tallest mountain peaks were at the limits of, perhaps even above, the pre-Flood atmosphere. (5) Due to atmospheric attenuation, all but the highest magnitude stars and planets would have been invisible in the tan regions.

From all this, we can infer that humans are furless because we evolved in the warm, abyssal regions; our ape relatives have fur because the pre-Flood landscapes to which they adapted (beige regions) were so much cooler. All mammals, living and extinct, including other homo species, whose remnants have been discovered in presently exposed landscapes (beige) would have required fur for survival.

Ancestors of darker-skinned humans evolved in tropical or equatorial latitudes where UV rays would have penetrated to occupied landscapes; hence, their melanin content. Likewise, lighter-skinned humans evolved in non-tropical latitudes where the atmosphere would have attenuated higher frequency wavelengths. Atmospheric attenuation also accounts for a recent finding that claims humans began seeing blue only recently.

Regarding our supposed relatives from Africa: their remnants were discovered in landscapes that we did not occupy. If they were relatives of homo sapiens, then they migrated down into the abyss from what are now African landscapes, and, over millions and millions of years in abyssal regions, they somehow evolved into homo sapiens. How did that happen? How long did it take? Open questions.

When one considers the vast, pre-Flood regions that humans occupied, it becomes obvious that an unimaginable number would drown in the Flood. Simple exponential growth models based on pre-industrial age population estimates indicate that Flood survivors would number in the thousands. Some would make it by boat; others, likely outcasts, would have been living in pre-flood upland regions; many would have lived in the pre-flood Mediterranean basin.

Le déluge de Noe et les compagnons by Léon Comerre (1911) Nantes Museum of Arts (Public Domain)

Med denizens had a survival advantage, time, because it took weeks after the celestial impact until its Flood waters attained such a height so as to afford passage into the basin through what is now the Strait of Gibraltar. During that period, Med inhabitants would have recognized the impact-induced changes to their weather, which would have included uncharacteristic cold as well as persistent rains. When the Flood waters appeared, Med survivors either boarded whatever crafts might have been available, or they fled upward. (Thus, the legend of Noah’s Ark originates from Med survivors.)

Those who inhabited pre-Flood regions near those countries now bordering the Med had relatively short distances to cover in order to attain safety. This explains the human DNA heat map, shown below, that implies by density (darkest coloration) where a certain trait finds its origin. Note that regions of greatest concentration for this particular trait (Mediterranean Admixture) are found along the Mediterranean basin’s shoreline.

Others survived upward. The Haida, noted seafarers, followed the Pacific shoreline eastward on the Flood’s rising waters. COL James Churchward investigated ancient writings in India and other parts of southeast Asia, and from them he introduced to us the legend of Lemuria (Mu), a civilization of common people that spanned large portions of the Pacific basin (discussed here). His work suffered rebuke and marginalization because it contradicted “no Flood.” Yet the DNA map, below, shows that Lemuria’s surviving descendants from Australia are closely linked to its survivors in South America.

DNA heat map showing inferred closest similarities between indigenous humans from Australia and South America (deep red) and lesser similarities in lighter colors. White circles indicate very few inferred DNA similarities. (Image reproduced with permission from Smithsonian.)

In an attempt to fit the DNA similarities to the consequences of “no Flood,” anthropologists concocted the human migration map, below (from From it, we are supposed to believe that, during the last ice age, native Australians made their way northward! more than 10,000 km through Asia, crossed some hypothesized land bridge through either the Bering Strait or the Aleutian Atoll, then made their way more than another 10,000 km to South America – all the while doing this without leaving their DNA signature!? Pure fantasy.

Atlantis existed, too. For those interested, my Explorers Club talk “Resolving the Problem of Atlantis” is available here.

It would not be over for survivors once The Flood’s waters attained their present level, as they would encounter a much cooler Earth. Unlike the environment for which they were adapted, the new Earth would require adequate clothing, as well as warm shelter and suitable food. Caves would provide immediate shelter, and campfires would constitute gathering places that provided warmth and food. Imagine the consequences involved with acquiring adequate food sources in this new, cooler environment while maintaining warmth and shelter…. It would take cooperation to survive; division of labor would be a necessary consequence.

Within the first few years after the Flood, survivors would have to deal with effects induced by the new, ocean-driven weather patterns that would transform the planet (e.g. pre-flood rain forests became deserts and vice versa, inland seas would evaporate, etc.). The post-Flood Earth environment would cause mass extinctions because many species could neither adapt nor find suitable habitats (they are now among the known Younger-Dryas extinctions). The changed weather would cause humans to migrate in search of adaptable regions bearing resources necessary for survival, some of which might be correctly depicted in the map.

The story of Adam and Eve is a Flood legend. Naked humans were ejected from their natural, pre-Flood landscapes (Eden), and their survival into post-Flood ecosystems changed their nature – they had to toil to survive. The snake, Satan, is a metaphor for the immense, comet-like object that delivered the Flood (described in my paper). Note the snakes in the painting, below, as well as the Chinese New Year dragon-like serpent that is depicted above the clouds with water emanating from its mouth (representing the Flood that it delivered).

A slight, yet related, aside: the various species of animals and birds found in the Galapagos chain either survived upward into landscapes that were suitable for their pre-Flood adaptations, or they were there prior to the Flood. Imagine what was lost….

What are we?

According to Wison, “Humanity is a biological species in a biological world. In every function of our bodies and mind and at every level, we are exquisitely well adapted to live on this particular planet.” One need only look about to recognize how wrong this statement is: we are clothed, we live in buildings that provide shelter and warmth, we eat processed foods – none of this is naturally occurring. These simple, omnipresent observations indicate that we are a maladapted species.

Because we are maladapted, we continuously struggle to find suitable environments and food. A consequential, important idea: our continued survival necessitates the use (abuse?) of Earth’s resources. Wilson agrees with this, as he observes that humans “are an evolutionary chimera, living on intelligence steered by the demands of animal instinct. This is the reason we are mindlessly dismantling the biosphere, and with it, our own prospects for permanent existence.”

We are also eusocial, about which Wilson says, “Our ancestors were one of only two dozen or so animal lines ever to evolve eusociality, the next major level of biological organization above the organismic. There, group members across two or more generations stay together, cooperate, care for the young, and divide labor in a way favoring reproduction of some individuals over that of others.” I have no idea what humans encountered in the pre-flood abyss, but it is certain that it was there that we acquired necessary eusocial behaviors. Abyssal plains are likely to have been grassy, which would account for our upright posture and height. Families would have created nest sites near rivers and lakes. There they likely divided labor – e.g. hunters and gatherers would set about to acquire whatever food was available within walking distance (what was our pre-Flood diet?). Larger nesting regions, cities and states, certainly existed (e.g. the aforementioned Lemuria and Atlantis).

Because of our brains, we now dominate the biosphere; all other species that survived and could adapt to the post-Flood biosphere have not had time to adjust to our presence. As Wilson says, they “were not prepared for the onslaught.” However, our numbers are constrained by Earth’s finite, non-renewable resources that dictate its carrying capacity. We are our only predators, now capable of creating and distributing weapons of mass destruction, including biological weapons.

What lifted us to this god-like estate? Wilson calls this a question of enormous importance for self-understanding. The answer: The Flood. In the correct context that there was a worldwide Flood and that we are a surviving, sentient, maladapted species, then it follows that all social structures, infrastructures, and economies that have arisen over the last 12,800 years have been directed toward our survival.

Where are we going?

In the literal sense, until we discover a planet that exactly resembles pre-Flood Earth, then, as Wilson states, “nobody is going to emigrate from this planet, not ever.” Should such a planet exist, it will be outside our solar system, making it so distant as to be unattainable. Therefore, extra-terrestrial travel would constitute a waste of resources.

In a figurative sense, it seems to me that a universal, correct understanding of our past might play a significant part in helping us to better survive. Unfortunately, based on the minimal response to my findings, such a realization seems unlikely. So, I consider it quite likely that someone is going to initiate an event that will have Flood-like consequences , and it’s likely to be biological….

An overlooked fact: we are ill-adapted to post-Flood Earth

Perhaps surprisingly, the worldwide flood (aka The Flood), has nothing to do with religion, though it might have inspired several. Instead, it is a scientific matter that involved a very large comet-like object impacting Earth about 12,800 years before present in what is now the Southern Ocean. By comet-like, I mean that it was primarily composed of ice, that it was porous, and that it was fragile; comets are fragments from this class of larger celestial bodies. Due to its composition and size, the impacting object (IO) delivered a nearly unimaginable amount of water that inundated abyssal landscapes. The newly introduced water transformed the planet in a matter of weeks, and it caused the extinction of myriad species. Were it not for our brains, it would have killed us, too. All of this is described in my paper, “The Flooding of the Mediterranean Basin at the Younger-Dryas Boundary,” available here.

Geologists will immediately dismiss any claim that there was a worldwide flood because one of their science’s primary axioms holds that The Flood never occurred. For those unaware, the reason that present-day geology has us believing that there was never a flood is due to Adam Sedgwick. A renaissance man of the early 19th century, Sedgwick was a Cambridge University professor, an ordained minister in the Church of England, and the president of the Geological Society of London. Seeking evidence of The Flood, Sedgwick and his geologist colleagues set about Europe searching for remnant sediments and formations. But the sought-for confirmation did not exist. So, after considerable reflection, Sedgwick concluded that there was never a worldwide flood.

In his 1831 address to his society, Sedgwick recanted his belief in The Flood – big news coming from someone of his renown. His recantation has enjoyed lasting effect: to this day, his ‘no flood, ever’ conclusion remains celebrated as the triumph of science over religion. ‘No flood’ permeates modern thought, and it has been accepted for so long that anyone thinking otherwise is immediately castigated as a non-scientist, if not a Bible-thumping rube.

Yet Sedgwick erred. From the evidence before him, Sedgwick should have concluded: presently exposed landscapes were never inundated by a common flood. That is an indisputably correct statement, yet different from the claim that there was never a worldwide flood. Sedgwick went too far: he passed judgment on the morphology of vast, submerged landscapes that he could not observe. He assumed that Earth’s present amount of water has always been here.

Because of its far-reaching consequences, Sedgwick’s ‘no worldwide flood, ever’ conclusion will eventually gain universal recognition as the most profound error in the history of science. Folks, it’s not even close: “no flood, ever” adversely affects our understanding of who we are, where we are from, and what has happened to our planet. For the past 200 years, we have had it all wrong.

Geology’s incorrect finding persisted for several reasons: (1) There was little contradictory evidence on presently exposed landscapes that would call into question the prevailing theory. (2) We could not see into the bathymetry to observe submerged landscapes until the new maps became available within the past decade. (3) The fear of being associated with a presumed religious tenet, as well as associated cowardice among lettered academics, prevented critical review. (4) Research money (an associated discussion, here).

Among the error’s unfortunate consequences is that ubiquitous cultural accounts of The Flood, including the story of Noah, are considered to be myths conjured by uneducated ancients; instead, they are legends of survivor accounts that have been passed down over the ensuing 600 or so generations. The Flood made a lasting impression, no?

To understand why The Flood legends persist, we need to consider what survivors encountered, and to do that, we must have an idea of pre-flood Earth, a model for which is shown below (blue represents pre-flood bodies of water; yellow represent post-flood exposed landscapes; tan represents pre-flood subaerial regions that are now submerged). Humans evolved in the dark tan regions – we are not out of Africa; regional variability in abyssal UV exposure accounts for our pigment diversity. Furthermore, in the absence of the heat sink represented by The Flood’s waters, the tan regions of pre-flood Earth would have been much warmer than the yellow regions that we now occupy. We are furless as a consequence. [Our simian relatives evolved in the yellow, pre-flood landscapes that were more than two miles above humanity’s abyssal regions; environments at that altitude would have been much cooler (comparison made at a fixed latitude). Hence, their fur. We encounter them now because we survived upward to their habitat.]

Figure6 blog

Back to The Flood survivors. Humans would have seen the IO on its approach, likely for a considerable time. It would have dominated the sky as it neared Earth. Its incredibly long tail would have been illuminated by the sun – this would be the origin of dragon and snake images associated with the event and its effects. Most would have felt the earthquakes induced by the IO’s impact. Immediately afterward, its ice would begin to melt, and the newly introduced, cold waters would then course their way through abyssal regions (tan, above).

Chinese New Year Dragon w water coming from mouth

Humans would have been terrified by the first sign of the water, and survival would become their only concern. Now, consider the vast, pre-Flood abyssal landscapes that humans occupied and how far inhabitants would have been from survivable regions…. An unimaginable number of humans would drown; survivors would number in the thousands. Some would make it by boat; others, likely outcasts, would have been living in pre-flood upland regions (yellow, above); many would have lived in the pre-flood Mediterranean.

Le deluge de Noe et les compagnons by Comerre 1911 public domain

Med denizens had a survival advantage, time, because it took weeks after the IO impact until The Flood’s waters attained such a height so as to afford passage into the basin through what is now the Strait of Gibraltar. During that period, Med inhabitants would have recognized the IO-induced changes to their weather, which would have included uncharacteristic cold as well as persistent rains. When The Flood waters appeared, Med survivors either boarded whatever crafts might have been available, or they had to flee upward. Those who inhabited pre-Flood regions near what are now the countries bordering the Med had relatively short distances to cover in order to attain safety.

A human DNA heat map, shown below, implies by density (darkest coloration) where a certain trait finds its origin. Note that regions of greatest concentration for this particular trait are found in northern regions along the Mediterranean basin’s shoreline.

European Admixture DNA heat map

It would not be over for survivors once The Flood’s waters attained their present level, as they would encounter a much cooler Earth. Unlike the environment for which they were adapted, the new Earth would require adequate clothing, as well as warm shelter and suitable food.

Within the first few years, survivors would have to deal with effects induced by the new, ocean-driven weather patterns that would transform the planet (e.g. pre-flood rain forests became deserts and vice versa, inland seas would evaporate, etc.). The post-Flood Earth environment would cause mass extinctions because many species could neither adapt nor find suitable habitats (they are now among the known Younger-Dryas extinctions). The changed weather would cause humans to migrate in search of adaptable regions bearing resources necessary for survival.

Nearly 13,000 years after The Flood, we continue our struggle for suitable environments and food – all because we are not properly adapted to the post-flood ecosystem. A consequential, important idea: our continued survival necessitates the use (abuse?) of Earth’s resources in order to provide suitable food, shelter, and warmth. Arguably, over the ensuing 12,800 years, all social structures and economies have been directed toward ensuring human survival. Yet, we are oblivious to this realization because of geology’s historic error.

Would it help us, as a species, to better survive if we had a correct understanding of our past and what has happened to our planet? I think that it would. If you happen to agree, then I would appreciate it if you were to share this essay with friends and colleagues.

A message not sent


A little more than a decade ago, I uncovered geology’s “no flood, ever” error.  Yet, even with the publication of my paper, there has been scant recognition of its far-reaching consequences. Why?

If you’ve ever dealt with academics, then you’re likely aware that, in general, they do not like to be told that they’re wrong. So, imagine what I am up against in making geologists and anthropologists aware that their sciences are fundamentally flawed…. The response: I have been ridiculed, dis-invited, and ostracized by academics, including former friends & colleagues.

To the subject of this post: over the years, I’ve engaged individuals from various disciplines regarding geology’s error. Of particular note, I remain amidst an exchange with an academic from a southern continent whose research and publications intersect with mine. I’ve learned that there are times when it is better not to engage what’s to gain? So, after drafting the following message, I think it better to publish it here rather than send it to this individual.

The message not sent:

As a follow-on to our earlier conversations, I thought to make you aware of a dialogue I shared with a lettered individual who recognizes the effect that “no flood, ever” has on misunderstandings regarding humanity’s past, particularly oral traditions. A recent email from this individual contains this:

As someone who is connected to a folk-movement of Polynesians and Native Americans from various tribes all asking the same questions — “Why do we all have a flood story?” “Where did we come from?” “Why do we look alike?” “Why do we share similar elements of language?” “Why does the story of Māui of Oceania sound like Hopi and Diné Maasauwu and Blood Clot Boy / Rabbit Boy of the Interior tribes?” — I am certain there is international interest in answering such questions and restoring history to its correct arc.

I have become increasingly convinced that task is one that must seriously take into account the many indigenous perspectives on pre-history including the religious traditions without allowing an atheist bias to dismiss out of hand the symbolic / mnemonic language of religions as modes of recording actual historical events — celestial phenomenon like eclipses, comet sightings, calamities, migrations, etc. It is glaringly obvious that “history” took a wrong turn in a number of places, which includes deliberate and systematic erasure of indigenous identities, languages, and oral histories, the confusion introduced by centuries of treasure-seeking, wanton tomb raiding at ancient sites, and desecration of ancestral burial sites.

The gatekeepers of the earth’s deep past are in the now marginalized populations of folk who dwell not in cities but on the plains, in the mountains, in the deserts, and upon the sea, many of whom are unaware of the wealth of knowledge they are sitting on, deeply encoded in the oral (songs, chants, legends) and material cultures.

In my previous correspondences with you, I noted that you perpetuate the marginalization of flood-related oral traditions because your work adheres to the indisputably wrong yet prevailing “no flood, ever” paradigm. Those oral traditions are not the myths you claim them to be; rather, they are legends that follow from an incredible event that transformed our planet and, correspondingly, our nature. Your works play a part in the erasures, and those of us on the correct side of history’s arc are justified in wondering: can you correct the damage you’ve done?

End message not sent


North America’s first permanent settlers: The Haida

Over the past months, I have attempted to establish contact with leaders of the Haida people, as well as others supposedly connected to the tribe. My intent was to inform them of my findings, which could help them to better understand their past. Because those efforts have been unsuccessful, I decided to write about the matter.

My interest in the Haida renewed last fall when I came across an article, “Archaeologist make historic find in Haida Gwaii,” available here. The researchers mentioned in the article had found pollen spores in charcoal remnants and dated them back 13,000 years before present – 2000 years before records of known Haida occupation of the region.

This finding reminded me of my initial interest in the Haida, formed from another news account from 2014, “Archaeologists discover 13,800-year-old underwater site at Haida Gwaii,” reported here and here. Sonar images revealed Haida artifacts, such as fishing weirs, beneath 120+ meters of Pacific water. Archaeologists claim that the site was exposed at the height of the last ice age when geologists believe the ocean levels were much lower. This explanation rests on geology’s indisputably erroneous “no flood, ever” paradigm that affects all modern science and associated fields. Unsurprisingly, the explanation is wrong.

Here is what happened:

The Haida were seafarers who practiced their craft in the pre-flood Pacific Ocean. An approximation to the Pacific’s pre-flood extent is shown in Figure 8 of my paper, The Flooding of the Mediterranean Basin at the Younger-Dryas Boundary, published about a year ago in Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry. A copy of that map is shown, below, with a yellow oval added to identify the likely Haida pre-flood habitation region. Note that what is now the Hawaiian Island chain was part of a pre-flood landmass situated amidst the former ocean. Any similarities in Haida and Hawaiian culture, language, and folklore are likely to find their source in a common people indigenous to this pre-flood region.

Haida Hawaii region on preflood map 28May2020

Who knows how long the Haida practiced their seamanship prior to the flood? But this much is certain: their seafaring skills would allow them to survive the event. There is no doubt that they saw to their east the massive celestial object that would deliver the flood (I call it the IO, for impacting object, in my paper) as it overflew North America just prior to impact. It is likely they experienced the earthquake shock from the IO impact. They would have recognized that something was amiss when, soon after the impact, the IO’s melted ice waters began coursing their way around the planet and inundating the Haida’s former homeland. At the first sign of rising water, they would have occupied their crafts, and they would have done all they could to keep the eastern extent of the rising ocean’s coastline within their view. This eastward journey is likely to have lasted weeks.

When the oceans’ level reached that of the passageway into the Mediterranean Sea through the Strait of Gibraltar, there would have been a halt in the water level rise in the Earth’s newly-connected oceans as the Med basin filled. At this time, thinking that the flooding had ceased, the Haida set up camp, about 100m above the cessation level and ~120m below the present ocean level.

However, the flood waters had not attained their final level. As a consequence, once the Med had completely flooded, the worldwide ocean level would resume its rise. This would have caused the Haida to abandon this first encampment, man their craft once again, and continue their journey eastward until the water level attained its current extent. This explains the discovery of Haida remnants off the Pacific coast six years ago in 120+m of water – the remains were from their initial encampment. (Makes for a good movie, no?)

Although there might have been earlier human forays into North America prior to the worldwide flood, they would have been short-lived because, at more than two miles above the level of the former abyss, it would have been too cold for furless humans to sustain permanent settlements, particularly during any ice ages. Thus, the Haida’s flood journey makes them the first permanent settlers in North America, though they are not indigenous in the sense that they survived into North America; they are not originally from North America. Other early North Americans are likely to have arrived through Central America or the Gulf of Mexico region. All native Americans are descendants of worldwide flood survivors – there are no humans indigenous to North America. 

Let us recognize that the flood’s waters forever and irreversibly changed the planet and its ecosystem. As with all flood survivors, the Haida had to adapt to a new Earth, a non-trivial task that continues to the present.

Related: The human migration myth

Maps depicting human migrations, like the one from, below, are based on the prevailing “no flood, ever” paradigm.


Data for such maps come from research like “A DNA Search for the First Americans Links Amazon Groups to Indigenous Australians,” reported in a 2015 Smithsonian article. There we find the next map displaying, by color, DNA similarities among indigenous humans (dark = closely linked, clear = not closely linked). Note that native Australians are closely linked to native South Americans.

DNA heat map

In the Smithsonian article, we read:

“More than 15,000 years ago, humans began crossing a land bridge called Beringia that connected their native home in Eurasia to modern-day Alaska. Who knows what the journey entailed or what motivated them to leave, but once they arrived, they spread southward across the Americas.

The prevailing theory is that the first Americans arrived in a single wave, and all Native American populations today descend from this one group of adventurous founders. But now there’s a kink in that theory. The latest genetic analyses back up skeletal studies suggesting that some groups in the Amazon share a common ancestor with indigenous Australians and New Guineans. The find hints at the possibility that not one but two groups migrated across these continents to give rise to the first Americans.”

Thus, according to the article, and as depicted in the migration map, we are supposed to believe that, during the last ice age, native Australians made their way northward! more than 10,000 km through Asia, crossed an hypothesized land bridge through either the Bering Strait or the Aleutian Atoll, then made their way another 10,000+ km to South America – all the while doing so without leaving their DNA signature!? What bunk.

The correct explanation for the DNA similarities between native Australians and native South American has nothing to do with migrations; instead it has to do with surviving the worldwide flood. Pre-flood humans from the same “clan” spanned the tropical to near-tropical expanse from Australia to South America, and flood survivors from the eastern and western extents of the region bear the family’s DNA signature. Related materials regarding Lemuria (and COL James Churchward’s work) can be found here.

Other maps depicting DNA similarities are accessible from eupedia, and several are shown, below (Mediterranean, Early European Farmer, and Atlantic admixtures).

Human DNA heat map for various admixtures in Mediterranean region 4Nov2019

The darkest regions correlate with the origination for the particular admixture, meaning that the DNA maps corroborate that humans from the pre-flood Mediterranean Basin survived upward to presently subaerial landscapes surrounding what is now the Mediterranean Sea. They did not migrate out of Africa, as claimed in the TransPacific map.

Of particular interest to me is the greatest concentration of the Atlantic admixture found near the Basque region of Spain in the bottom map. This indicates that humans from the pre-flood Atlantic basin survived the worldwide flooding event 12,800 years before present. Their relatives from Atlantis were not so fortunate.


The Haida are North America’s first permanent settlers.

Because of geology’s error, myths such as the human migrations depicted in the TransPacific map perpetuate as accepted science. In addition, ubiquitous cultural accounts of the worldwide flood are treated as the musings of ancient, unintelligent humans when, in actuality, they are accounts of an historic event.

Prior to the flood, abyssal landscapes were much warmer because (1) the flood’s waters present an incredible heat sink that has made post-flood Earth cooler, and (2) higher atmospheric pressure in abyssal regions.

Humans evolved in pre-flood abyssal landscapes (dark tan regions on the pre-flood map), and its warmer environment explains why we are furless. 

Importantly, we should recognize that we are ill-adapted to Earth’s post-flood environments, and our survival necessitates environmental abuses such as resource exploitation.


Simultaneous Impacts Configured Earth’s Landforms

There are two major events in Earth history that geologists have wrong. The first is “no flood, ever” – an indisputable mistake committed nearly 200 years ago, and the primary subject of this website. My peer-reviewed paper, “The Flooding of the Mediterranean Basin at the Younger-Dryas Boundary” begins the process of correcting that error.

The second major error deals with the instantiation of the planet’s tectonic plates, and it is the subject of the present post. My plan was to have The Worldwide Flood gain acceptance by the scientific community and then present this material. However, I might not live that long…. So, I’ve devoted portions of the COVID-19 quarantine period to re-working a paper I submitted to Geomorphology several years ago. The editor sent the paper our for “expert” review, but it was deemed too radical for publication.

Geology is fundamentally flawed, which means that anthropology is, too. As such, we must forget most of what has been learned over the past 60 years and start over again.

Geology’s re-start continues with the following:

Simultaneous Impacts Configured Earth’s Landforms


The simultaneous impacts of two eastward moving, immensely energetic objects configured Earth’s land masses and instilled its present rotational velocity (day) as well as its obliquity.  The Simultaneous Impacts Hypothesis explains continental movement and positioning, as well as when Plate Tectonics began.

Keywords: simultaneous impacts; plate tectonics.


Modern geology follows two fundamental tenets, “no worldwide flood, ever” and Plate Tectonics. Each was conjured on incomplete data; that is, those responsible for the hypotheses did not have access to ocean floor bathymetry information available on today’s maps. The former, initiated by Adam Sedgwick in 1831, is indisputably wrong (Jaye, 2019), and the latter remains subject to controversies ranging from violations of spherical harmonics (Lyushkin, 1967) to the blueschist conundrum (Palin & White, 2016).

In this paper, we apply a first principle approach to continental positioning based on the new map information and basic physics. From them, we create a novel hypothesis that replaces presently accepted assumptions formed on incorrect interpretations of previous, less complete information. We conclude that a brief and energetic event configured the Earth’s continents, ocean basins, and major mountain ranges, and it instilled the planet’s present day and obliquity. The Simultaneous Impact Hypothesis retains the assumption that many of Earth’s large land forms were once connected.


The energy required to configure Earth’s landforms to their current positions was delivered by the simultaneous impact of two eastward-moving, solid, massive objects whose remnants measure approximately 800 km in diameter. The objects struck at an angle nearly parallel to the planet’s surface.  The northern object (1N) initial strike location was in the equatorial region northeast of Australia and the southern object (1S) strike location was southwest of New Zealand. Impact locations are identified by red X’s in Figure 1 where the red arrows indicate the impacting objects’ direction of travel. The objects’ shallow impact angles created troughs (rather than craters) that are easily detected in Google Maps (satellite view) or Google Earth. Remnant troughs are identified in red ovals in Fig. 1; they bound the northern and southern extents of South America forming the Caribbean and Scotia Seas, respectively. Impact antipode locations are identified by the yellow circles in Fig. 1. The 1S antipode is Iceland, and the 1N antipode is found in the equatorial region of the mid-Atlantic ridge. The antipodes were created by impact shocks passing through the planet. Iceland’s volcanic activity affirms it as the antipode of the 1S impact site; Africa’s transit, described below, cauterized the 1N antipode, though it remains seismically active (see Figure 6).

The origin and nature of the impacting objects is unknown. However, their shallow impact angles might indicate that the objects suffered decayed orbits.

Simultaneous impacts Fig1 April2020
Figure 1. Red X’s and ovals identify the simultaneous impact locations and remnant troughs, respectively. Yellow circles indicate impact antipode locations.


The simultaneous impacts severed and propelled formerly conjoined India and Africa from their original locations. By event termination the movement of these land masses would create basins for the Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean. India, immediately to the east of the 1S impact, acquired significant kinetic energy. Due to the impacting objects’ initial directions, the more massive and slower moving African continent slid eastward and northward (Figure 2a). India’s velocity would eventually cause it to shear off of Africa; as it proceeded northward (Figure 2b), India collided with a land mass and dragged it from its original location (Figure 2c), creating what is now Malaysia. This collision induced a torque to the moving Indian landmass that sheared Madagascar off of Africa as well as India (Figure 2d). (The approximate India-Malaysia collision location, identified by the yellow X on Fig. 2, has its antipode in central North America. This accounts for recent seismic activity in Oklahoma.)

Simultaneous Impacts Fig2 April 2020
Figure 2. Arrows indicate (a) Africa’s movement relative to South America; (b) India’s transit; (c) Malaysia’s creation by India’s impact and transit; (d) Madagascar is shorn from Africa and India due to torque induced by India’s impact with Malaysia.

India’s momentum carried it northward and into the Asian sub-continent, creating the Himalayan range. Land mass transits formed terrestrial wakes, scrapes, and gouges that remain as evidence on the ocean floors; Ninetyeast Ridge is one such remnant. India’s path follows a great circle route on the sphere, as shown on Figure 3.

Simultaneous Impacts Fig3 April 2020Figure 3. The white arrow identifies India’s transit on the sphere, a great circle route.


The simultaneous impacts also compressed, severed, and released what are now North America and South America from their original locations and then dragged them across the Pacific Ocean basin, which their movements created. Outlines of the continents’ western boundaries remain discernable in the bathymetry (Figure 4). Forces from the dual impacts deformed and compressed terrain topographies, creating both the Andes and Rocky Mountain ranges, before impact forces released the continents on their eastward transits; landmass compression lasted until impact forces overcame the continents’ static friction forces. The Andes are tightly formed along South America’s western coast due to the influence of both 1N and 1S. However, North America’s western mountains, valleys, and faults were formed by a more complex sequence of events due to the influence of only 1N.

Simultaneous Impacts Fig4 April 2020
Figure 4. The simultaneous impacts severed and released what are now North America and South America from their original locations and dragged them across the Pacific basin.  Outlines of the continents’ pre-impacts positions are identified in the bathymetry by NA and SA on the left of this Google Maps image.  White arrows are of equal length to convey event simultaneity.

The Rocky Mountains were created by 1N initially tearing and compressing land from the western Pacific (white double arrows, Figure 5a). The landscape was compressed to a “release line,” now a series of volcanoes (Fig. 5b), most of which are now submerged; the northwest extent of the “release line” is in the Pacific Ocean near Kamchatka. 1N’s eastward movement eventually imparted sufficient force to overcome the continent’s static friction force; once released, the continent’s transit formed the northern Pacific Ocean basin. The latitude-like arc stretching from Kamchatka along the Aleutian Atoll to the Gulf of Alaska is a remnant of North America’s shearing at the onset of its release. This compression uplifted the formerly ancient sea beds that are found along North America’s west coast.

Simultaneous Impacts Fig5 April 2020Figure 5.  (a)  White double arrows indicate North America’s land mass compression region, forming the Rocky Mountains; (b) North America’s release line; (c) scours created by (d) drag locations (white circles) which unfurled compressed landscapes during continental transit, creating valleys, gulfs, and faults along the western coast; prior to the simultaneous impacts, the red circled regions along the western Pacific boundary were connected to the white circled drag locations found along the west coast of North America.  The Mexican Peninsula is particularly disfigured by North America’s transit; faults and consequent earthquakes persist due to landmass deformation; (e) black double arrows indicate the region unfurled by westward-acting drag forces during North America’s eastward transit.

Valleys, gulfs, and faults along the west coast of North America were created by drag mechanisms which unfurled compressed landscapes during transit. These drag locations (Fig. 5d) created a set of four essentially parallel west-to-east remnant scrapes in the Pacific Ocean floor (Fig. 5c). The Rocky Mountain chain was partially unfurled by the westward acting forces from these drag mechanisms (black double arrows, Fig. 5e), creating California’s Central Valley as well as the Gulf of California. The westward acting drag forces on the eastward moving continent weakened the compressed landscapes resulting in the faults found along North America’s west coast. Because of the drag locations, the west coast of North America halted while 1N continued eastward. This created southeasterly terrain elongations that formed the Baja Peninsula and produced the region’s faults that remain active to the present. It should be noted that the drag locations found along the western coast of North America correspond to their readily identifiable original locations now in the bathymetry of the western Pacific Ocean. Their locations are identified by red circles on the left of Fig. 5.

Thus, to summarize: the simultaneous impacts created the present configuration of the tectonic plates. Some landmass boundary regions remain seismically active, as shown on the USGS earthquake map on Figure 6.

Simultaneous Impacts Fig6 April 2020Figure 6.  Plate boundaries and recent seismic activity are shown on this USGS map.


The simultaneous impacts imparted sufficient energy to affect the rotation of the planet, resulting in the current day. We note on Figure 7 that the southern impact’s trough exactly coincides with lines of latitude (55o and 60o south). This indicates that the Earth’s rotation matches the direction of the 1S impact, meaning that the simultaneous impacts created the planet’s day.

Simultaneous Impacts Fig7 April 2020Figure 7. The southern impact trough coincides with lines of latitude.


India’s impact into the Asian sub-continent, or Africa’s halt, or both, induced the planet’s obliquity. Evidence remains in the 1N’s impact trough, which has a southern turn (or rightward turn relative to the object’s travel direction). This is understood as follows: as 1N traveled straight in its impact direction, India’s collision and/or Africa’s halt caused the planet to tilt northward while 1N continued to plow eastward. Thus, the 1N remnant trough bends southward, shown in Figure 8.

Simultaneous Impacts Fig8 April 2020
Figure 8.  The white line is superimposed over 1N’s transit path.  Note that the path curves southward.


The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, thought to be a mechanism causing continental separation, is instead the remnant of a compression wave that preceded North America’s and South America’s eastward transits over landscapes weakened by the impacts and continental transits. This accounts for the ridge’s nearly uniform bisection of the Atlantic basin.

Volcanic fissures that eventually would lead to the formation of the Hawaiian Island system were created by the movement of one of the drag locations. Evidence in the form of scrapes in the Pacific basin can be traced to major volcanoes in the Hawaiian Island chain, shown in Figure 9. Assuming that the deepest or largest fissure would be created nearest to 1N, then fissure dormancy time would be expected to increase as a function of distance northward. Thus, we find Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea presently active, whereas dormant islands (Maui, Lanai, Molokai, and Oahu) extend to the northwest in the island chain. The Hawaiian Islands are not migrating over some hypothesized hot spot.

Simultaneous impacts Fig9update April 2020Figure 9. Scrapes left by drag mechanisms correspond to volcanoes in the Hawaiian Islands.

The dual impacts and their immediate effects took place over a span of time measured in minutes, and the mass extinctions they caused place the event on the order of 63-65 million years before present.

The planet’s increased rotational velocity and its newly induced tilt are likely to have created conditions resulting in the planet’s chaotic magnetosphere. Asymmetries in impact sizes, locations, and effects would be the source of Milankovitch cycles. Prior to the simultaneous impacts, the Earth’s axis would have been perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic.


The simultaneous impact of two massive and energetic objects configured the continents and tectonic plates, the ocean basins, major mountain ranges, and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Landmass movements also instilled the planet’s day and obliquity. The simultaneous impacts and their effects caused a mass extinction, which places the event somewhere between 63-65 million years before present. Thus, we understand the source of the tectonic plates, as well as when they were created.



Earthquake map with tectonic plates from (2020).

Google Earth and Google Maps satellite view (2020).

Jaye, M. (2019) The Flooding of the Mediterranean Basin at the Younger-Dryas Boundary. Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry, Vol. 19, No 1, pp. 71-83.

Lyustikh, E. N. (1967) Criticism of Hypotheses of Convection and Continental Drift. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 14, pp. 347-352.

Palin, R. M. & White, R. W. (2016) Emergence of blueschists on Earth linked to secular changes in oceanic crust composition. Nature Geoscience, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 60–64.