There are two major events in Earth history that geologists have wrong. The first is “no flood, ever” – an indisputable mistake committed nearly 200 years ago, and the primary subject of this website. The second major error is the subject of the present post, a recapitulation of a paper I submitted to Geomorphology several years ago. The editor actually sent the paper our for “expert” review, but they thought it too radical for publication. I held onto it nonetheless.
My plan was to have The Worldwide Flood gain acceptance by the scientific community and then present this material. However, I might not live that long.
So, here is a paper that corrects the other fundamental error in geology that has us believing that, somehow, subsurface flows mysteriously reach up thousands of miles to move solid bedrock through solid bedrock. Such thinking is the fake-science equivalent of the notion that subsurface flows somehow carve submerged river systems.
Here is the majority of my correspondence with editor at Geomorphology:
“This article identifies the energy source and the sequence of events that configured the tectonic plates, continents, ocean basins, and major mountain ranges, and it describes how the planet’s obliquity was instilled. The Simultaneous Impacts Hypothesis invalidates Continental Drift and therefore constitutes a significant advance toward forming a more correct understanding of Earth history.
To paraphrase R. Thomas Chamberlain’s critique of Alfred Wegener, “If we are to believe in Jaye’s hypothesis, then we must forget most of what has been learned in the past 60 years and start all over again.” This hypothesis won’t require a complete restart, for much that has been learned while trying to support continental drift will likely fit into the Simultaneous Impacts Theory. However, this explanation will excite world-wide interest, new inquiries, realignment of old findings, and the discarding of others, etc.”
And now for the paper:
Simultaneous impacts configured Earth’s landforms and instilled its obliquity
Keywords: simultaneous impacts; obliquity; tectonic plate creation and movement
The simultaneous impacts of two eastward moving, immensely energetic objects configured the Earth’s land masses and instilled its obliquity. The Simultaneous Impacts Hypothesis refutes and replaces Continental Drift.
INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY
For most of the past half century geologists have been searching for the source of energy that could move the continents over great distances. Based on the information available for most of this period, the only logical place to search was and has been Earth’s interior – hence, Continental Drift. But new data provide sufficient evidence to nullify that hypothesis. Visual Analytics, the science of reasoning facilitated by interactive image processing interfaces, applied to Google Maps and Google Earth data, leads to a novel hypothesis that replaces presently accepted assumptions, presuppositions, and myths formed on inaccurate interpretations of previously incomplete information. This paper assumes that Google Earth and Google Maps data are accurate. That data is analyzed to conclude that a brief and energetic event configured the Earth’s continents, ocean basins, and major mountain ranges, and it instilled the planet’s obliquity. While retaining the accepted hypothesis that many of Earth’s large land forms were once connected, the Simultaneous Impact Hypothesis refutes and replaces Continental Drift.
The energy required to configure Earth’s landforms to their current positions was approximately 1029 Joules (two spherically shaped impacting objects with 320 km radius, 2800 kg/m3 density, and impact velocity of 15 km/s). This energy was delivered by the simultaneous impacts of two eastward-moving, massive objects whose remnants measure approximately 800 km in diameter. Impact remnants frame the northern and southern extents of South America forming the Caribbean and Scotia Seas, respectively. The origin and nature of the objects is unknown; however, the shallow impact angle that led to the creation of remnant troughs might indicate that the objects could have suffered decayed orbits. The forces imparted by the simultaneous impacts separated land masses and configured the continents, the ocean basins, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the major mountain ranges, and the tectonic plates as they are today. Land mass movements and collisions caused by the simultaneous impacts instilled the planet’s obliquity. The duration of this event was approximately 20 minutes, and it caused a mass extinction.
The objects’ shallow impact angles created troughs (rather than craters), and they are easily detected in Google Maps (satellite view) or Google Earth. Remnant troughs are identified in red ovals in Figure 1. The northern object (1N) initial strike location was in the equatorial region northeast of Australia and the southern object (1S) strike location was southeast of New Zealand. Impact locations are identified by faded red circles in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Red ovals identify the simultaneous impact remnant troughs. Impact locations are identified by faded red circles.
2.1 AFRICA AND INDIA
The simultaneous impacts severed and propelled formerly conjoined India and Africa from their original locations. By event termination the movement of these land masses would create basins for the Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean. India, immediately to the east of the 1S impact, acquired the most kinetic energy. Due to the impacting objects’ initial directions, the more massive and slower moving African continent slid eastward and northward (Figure 2a). India’s velocity would eventually cause it to shear off of Africa; as it proceeded northward (Figure 2b), India collided with a land mass and dragged it from its original location (Figure 2c), creating what is now known as Malaysia. This collision induced a torque to the moving Indian landmass that sheared Madagascar off of Africa as well as India (Figure 2d). India’s momentum carried it northward and into the Asian sub-continent, creating the Himalayan range. Land mass transits formed terrestrial wakes, scrapes, and gouges that remain as evidence on the ocean floors; Ninetyeast Ridge is one such remnant. India’s path follows a great circle route on the sphere (Figure 3).
Figure 2. Arrows indicate (a) Africa’s movement relative to South America; (b) India’s transit; (c) Malaysia’s creation by India’s impact and transit; (d) Madagascar is shorn from Africa and India due to torque induced by India’s impact with Malaysia.
Figure 3. The arrow in this Google Earth image identifies India’s transit on the sphere as a great circle route.
2.2 NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA
The simultaneous impacts also compressed, severed, and then released what are now North America and South America from their original locations and then dragged them across the Pacific Ocean basin, which their movements created. Outlines of the continents’ western boundaries remain discernable in the bathymetry (Figure 4). Forces from the dual impacts deformed and compressed terrain topographies, creating both the Andes and Rocky Mountain ranges, before impact forces released the continents on their eastward transits. The compression lasted until impact forces overcame the continents’ static friction forces. The Andes are tightly formed along South America’s western coast due to land mass compression from both 1N and 1S. However, North America’s western mountains, valleys, and faults were formed by a more complex sequence of events due to the influence of only 1N.
Figure 4. The simultaneous impacts severed and released what are now North America and South America from their original locations and dragged them across the Pacific basin. Outlines of the continents’ pre-impacts positions are identified in the bathymetry by NA and SA on the left of this Google Maps image. White arrows are of equal length to convey event simultaneity.
The Rocky Mountains were created by 1N initially tearing and compressing land from the western Pacific (white double arrows, Figure 5a). The landscape was compressed to a “release line,” now a series of volcanoes (Figure 5b), most of which are submerged; the northwest extent of the “release line” is in the Pacific Ocean near Kamchatka. 1N’s eastward movement eventually imparted sufficient force to overcome the continent’s static friction force; once released, the continent’s transit formed the northern Pacific Ocean basin. The latitude-like arc stretching from Kamchatka along the Aleutian Atoll to the Gulf of Alaska is a remnant of North America’s shearing at the onset of its release.
Figure 5. (a) White double arrows indicate North America’s land mass compression region, forming the Rocky Mountains; (b) North America’s release line; (c) scours created by (d) drag locations (white circles) which unfurled compressed landscapes during continental transit, creating valleys, gulfs, and faults along the western coast; prior to the simultaneous impacts, the red circled regions along the western Pacific boundary were connected to the white circled drag locations found along the west coast of North America. The Mexican Peninsula is particularly disfigured by North America’s transit; faults and consequent earthquakes persist due to landmass deformation; (e) black double arrows indicate the region unfurled by westward-acting drag forces during North America’s transit.
Valleys, gulfs, and faults along the west coast of North America were created by drag mechanisms which unfurled compressed landscapes during transit. These drag locations (Figure 5d) created a set of four essentially parallel west-to-east remnant scrapes in the Pacific Ocean floor (Figure 5c). The Rocky Mountain chain was partially unfurled by the westward acting forces from these drag mechanisms (black double arrows, Figure 5e), creating California’s Central Valley as well as the Gulf of California. The westward acting drag forces on the eastward moving continent weakened the compressed landscapes resulting in the faults found along North America’s west coast. Because of the drag locations, the west coast of North America halted while 1N continued eastward. This created southeasterly terrain elongations that formed the Baja Peninsula and produced the region’s faults that remain active to the present. It should be noted that the drag locations found along the western coast of North America correspond to their readily identifiable original locations now in the bathymetry of the western Pacific Ocean. Their locations are identified by red circles in Figure 5.
2.3 INSTILLING THE PLANET’S OBLIQUITY
India’s impact into the Asian sub-continent or Africa’s halt, or both, induced the planet’s obliquity. Evidence remains in the impact troughs, each of which has a southern turn (or rightward turn relative to the objects’ travel direction): as the two impacting objects traveled straight in their reference frames, India’s collision and/or Africa’s halt caused the planet beneath them to tilt northward; as the objects continued to plow eastward their remnant troughs consequently bend southward, shown in Figure 6.
Figure 6. The white lines are superimposed over the impacting objects’ transit remnants. The paths curve southward because the objects traveled straight in their reference frame while the planet beneath them tilted northward. The northward tilt was induced by the halt in Africa’s transit, or when India collided into the Asian subcontinent, or both.
2.4 OTHER EFFECTS
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, erroneously thought to be a mechanism causing continental separation, forms as a consequence of continental transits coming to a halt: the ridge and its deformations buckled as North and South American eastward transits ceased. Hence the ridge nearly uniformly bisects the Americas to the west and Europe and Africa to the east.
Volcanic fissures that eventually would lead to the formation of the Hawaiian Island system were created by movement of one of the drag locations. Evidence in the form of scrapes in the Pacific basin can be traced to major volcanoes in the Hawaiian Island chain, shown in Figure 7. Assuming that the deepest or largest fissure would be created nearest to 1N, then fissure dormancy time would be expected to increase as a function of distance northward. Thus we find Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea presently active, whereas dormant islands (Maui, Lanai, Molokai, and Oahu) extend to the northwest in the island chain. The Hawaiian Islands are not migrating over some hypothesized hot spot.
Figure 7. Scrapes left by drag mechanisms correspond to volcanoes in the Hawaiian Islands.
The dual impacts and their immediate effects took place over a span of time measured in minutes. The mass extinction caused by the impacts places the event at least 65 million years before present. Boundaries and tectonic plates created during the event remain seismically active as the planet continues to recover.
In addition to instilling the planet’s obliquity, the simultaneous impacts imparted sufficient energy to affect the rotation of the planet, resulting in the current day. Note that the southern impact’s trough exactly coincides with lines of latitude (55o and 60o south). This indicates that the Earth’s rotation matches the direction of the 1S impact, as well as 1N’s. Thus, the simultaneous impacts created the current day.
Figure 8. The southern impact trough exactly coincides with lines of latitude.
The planet’s increased rotational velocity and its newly induced tilt are likely to have created conditions resulting in the planet’s chaotic magnetosphere. Asymmetries in impact sizes, locations, and effects could be the source of Milankovitch cycles. Prior to the simultaneous impacts, the Earth’s axis would have been perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic, and warmer climates are likely to have extended closer to its poles. Finally, materials ejected by the massive and energetic collisions are likely to have escaped Earth’s gravitational pull and eventually cratered its moon.
The simultaneous impact of two massive and energetic objects configured the continents by moving them to their present locations, creating the Earth’s ocean basins as well as its major mountain ranges and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Landmass movements and collisions induced by the simultaneous impacts instilled the planet’s obliquity. The movements also created the planet’s tectonic plates as well as their boundaries that remain seismically active to the present. All this took place on a time scale measured in minutes. The impacts and their effects caused a mass extinction, placing the simultaneous impacts at least 65 million years before present. The Simultaneous Impacts Hypothesis refutes Continental Drift, and the many works based upon that assumption are therefore invalid.